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Armstrong, Richard A (2018). Spatial patterns of the tau-immunoreactive inclusions in eight different tauopathies are consistent with the spread of pathogenic tau. European Medical Journal Neurology, 6 (1), pp. 86-94.

Armstrong, Richard A (2018). The quantitative analysis of neurodegenerative disease:Classification, noda, constellations, and multivariate geometry. Folia Neuropathologica, 56 (1), pp. 1-13.

Armstrong, Richard A (2018). A comparison of visual problems in the parkinsonian syndromes. Internal Medicine Review, 4 (3),

Armstrong, Richard A (2018). Visual problems associated with traumatic brain injury:Vision with traumatic brain injury. Clinical and Experimental Optometry ,

Zeri, Fabrizio, Pitzalis, Sabrina, Di Vizio, Assunta, Ruffinatto, Tiziana, Egizi, Fabrizio, Di Russo, Francesco, Armstrong, Richard and Naroo, Shehzad A. (2018). Refractive error and vision correction in a general sports-playing population. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 101 (2), pp. 225-236.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2017). Neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in tau, TDP-43, and FUS molecular subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration share similar spatial patterns. Folia Neuropathologica, 55 (3), pp. 185-192.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2017). Recommendations for analysis of repeated-measures designs:testing and correcting for sphericity and use of manova and mixed model analysis. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 37 (5), pp. 585-593.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2017). Laminar degeneration of frontal and temporal cortex in Parkinson disease dementia. Neurological Sciences, In pre ,

Armstrong, Richard A., McKee, Ann C., Alvarez, Victor E. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2017). Clustering of tau-immunoreactive pathology in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Journal of Neural Transmission, 124 (2), pp. 185-192.

Armstrong, Richard A., McKee, Ann C. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2017). Pathology of the superior colliculus in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Optometry and Vision Science, 94 (1), pp. 33-42.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2017). Evidence from spatial pattern analysis for the anatomical spread of α-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease dementia. Folia Neuropathologica, 55 (1), pp. 23-30.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2016). Visual signs and symptoms of corticobasal degeneration. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 99 (6), pp. 498-506.

Rushton, Rebecca M., Armstrong, Richard A. and Dunne, Mark C.M. (2016). The influence on unaided vision of age, pupil diameter and spherocylindrical refractive error. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 99 (4), pp. 328-335.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2016). Lichenometric dating (lichenometry) and the biology of the lichen genus rhizocarpon:challenges and future directions. Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Early ,

Armstrong, R.A., McKee, A.C., Stein, T.D., Alvarez, V.E. and Cairns, N.J. (2016). A quantitative study of tau pathology in eleven cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, Early ,

Armstrong, Richard A. (2016). Can neurodegenerative disease be defined by four 'primary determinants':anatomy, cells, molecules, and morphology? Folia Neuropathologica, 54 (2), pp. 89-104.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2016). Survival in the pre-senile dementia frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy:effects of genetic, demographic and neuropathological variables. Folia Neuropathologica, 54 (2), pp. 137-148.

Armstrong, R.A. (2015). Oculo-visual dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Parkinson's Disease, 5 (4), pp. 715-726.

Armstrong, Richard and Kergoat, Hélène (2015). Oculo-visual changes and clinical considerations affecting older patients with dementia. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 35 (4), pp. 352-376.

Armstrong, R.A. and Bradwell, T. (2015). 'Growth rings' in crustose lichens:comparison with directly measured growth rates and implications for lichenometry. Quaternary Geochronology, 28 , pp. 88-95.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2015). Quantitative pathological changes in the cerebellum of multiple system atrophy. Folia Neuropathologica, 53 (3), pp. 193-202.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2015). Laminar distribution of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide deposits in the frontal lobe in familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Folia Neuropathologica, 53 (1), pp. 15-23.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2015). Comparative quantitative study of ‘signature’ pathological lesions in the hippocampus and adjacent gyri of 12 neurodegenerative disorders. Journal of Neural Transmission, 122 (10), pp. 1355-1367.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2014). Visual signs and symptoms of multiple system atrophy. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 97 (6), pp. 483-491.

Robaszkiewicz, Agnieszka, Bartosz, Grzegorz, Pitt, Andrew R., Thakker, Alpesh, Armstrong, Richard A., Spickett, Corinne M. and Soszyński, Mirosław (2014). HOCl-modified phosphatidylcholines induce apoptosis and redox imbalance in HUVEC-ST cells. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 548 , pp. 1-10.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2014). A critical analysis of the 'amyloid cascade hypothesis'. Folia Neuropathologica, 52 (3), pp. 211-225.

Armstrong, R.A. (2014). Factors determining disease duration in Alzheimer's disease:a postmortem study of 103 cases using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox regression. BioMed Research International, 2014 ,

Armstrong, Richard A. (2013). Spatial relationships between diffuse prion protein deposits and neuronal perikarya in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Folia Neuropathologica, 51 (1), pp. 18-25.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2013). What causes alzheimer's disease? Folia Neuropathologica, 51 (3), pp. 169-188.

Armstrong, Richard (2013). Fungal infection of the eye (ocular mycosis). Microbiologist, 14 , pp. 9-13.

Armstrong, R.A. (2013). Development of areolae and growth of the peripheral prothallus in the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum:an image analysis study. Symbiosis, 60 (1), pp. 7-15.

Armstrong, Richard (2013). Spatial patterns of phosphorylation-dependent TDP-43-immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI) in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP). Journal of Molecular BIochemistry, 2 (3), pp. 142-149.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2013). Statistical guidelines for the analysis of data obtained from one or both eyes. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 33 (1), pp. 7-14.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2013). Spatial patterns of the tau pathology in progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurological Sciences, 34 (3), pp. 337-344.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2012). Different molecular pathologies result in similar spatial patterns of cellular inclusions in neurodegenerative disease:a comparative study of eight disorders. Journal of Neural Transmission, 119 (12), pp. 1551-1560.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2012). Visual signs and symptoms of dementia with Lewy bodies. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 95 (6), pp. 621-630.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2012). β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in cognitively normal brain, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Alzheimer's disease:a study using principal components analysis. Folia Neuropathologica, 50 (2), pp. 130-139.

Armstrong, Richard A., Carter, D. and Cairns, N.J. (2012). A quantitative study of the neuropathology of 32 sporadic and familial cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP). Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 38 (1), pp. 25-38.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2012). On the 'classification' of neurodegenerative disorders:discrete entities, overlap or continuum? Folia Neuropathologica, 50 (3), pp. 201-218.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2012). Size frequency distributions of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits:a comparative study of four neurodegenerative disorders. Folia Neuropathologica, 50 (3), pp. 240-249.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2011). Spatial patterns of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Folia Neuropathologica, 49 (3), pp. 153-161.

Qin, Lu, Bartlett, Hannah E., Griffiths, Helen R., Eperjesi, Frank, Armstrong, Richard A. and Gherghel, Doina (2011). Macular pigment optical density is related to blood glutathione levels in healthy individuals. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 52 (9), pp. 5029-5033.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2011). Spatial patterns of TDP-43 neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI) in fifteen cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP). Neurological Sciences, 32 (4), pp. 653-659.

Armstrong, Richard A., Davies, Leon N., Dunne, Mark C.M. and Gilmartin, Bernard (2011). Statistical guidelines for clinical studies of human vision. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 31 (2), pp. 123-136.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2011). A morphometric study of the spatial patterns of TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with progranulin (GRN) mutation. Histology and Histopathology, 26 (2), pp. 185-190.

Armstrong, Richard A., Gearing, Marla, Bigio, Eileen H., Cruz-Sanchez, Felix F., Duyckaerts, Charles, Mackenzie, Ian R.A., Perry, Robert H., Skullerud, Kari, Yokoo, Hedeaki and Cairns, Nigel J. (2011). The spectrum and severity of FUS-immunoreactive inclusions in the frontal and temporal lobes of ten cases of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease. Acta Neuropathologica, 121 (2), pp. 219-228.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Bradwell, Tom (2011). Growth of foliose lichens: a review. Symbiosis, 53 (1), pp. 1-16.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2011). Density and spatial pattern of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in corticobasal degeneration. Folia Neuropathologica, 49 (1), pp. 14-20.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2011). Laminar distribution of the pathological changes in sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Pathology Research International, 2011 , pp. 1-7.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2011). Visual symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's Disease, 2011 , 9 pages.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2011). The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease: a reevaluation of the "amyloid cascade hypothesis". International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 2011 ,

Armstrong, Richard A. and Bradwell, Tom (2010). Growth of crustose lichens: a review. Geografiska Annaler: Series A, 92 (1), pp. 3-17.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2010). Dispersion of prion protein deposits around blood vessels in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Folia Neuropathologica, 48 (3), pp. 150-158.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Bradwell, Tom (2010). The use of lichen growth rings in lichenometry: some preliminary findings. Geografiska Annaler: Series A, 92 (1), pp. 141-147.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2010). A spatial pattern analysis of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the temporal lobe in Alzheimer's disease. Folia Neuropathologica, 48 (2), pp. 67-74.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2010). Quantitative methods in neuropathology. Folia Neuropathologica, 48 (4), pp. 217-230.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2010). A spatial pattern analysis of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposition in the temporal lobe in Alzheimer's disease. Folia Neuropathologica, 48 (2), pp. 67-74.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2009). The molecular biology of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer’s disease. Folia Neuropathologica, 47 (4), pp. 289-99.

Armstrong, Richard A., Ellis, William, Hamilton, Ronald L., Mackenzie, Ian R. A., Hedreen, John, Gearing, Marla, Montine, Thomas, Vonsattel, Jean-Paul, Head, Elizabeth, Lieberman, Andrew P. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2009). Neuropathological heterogeneity in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy: a quantitative study of 94 cases using principal components analysis. Journal of Neural Transmission, 117 (2), pp. 227-239.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2009). Size frequency distribution of the β-amyloid (aβ) deposits in dementia with Lewy bodies with associated Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Neurological Sciences, 30 (6), pp. 471-477.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2009). Statnote 19: non-linear regression: fitting an exponential curve to data. Microbiologist, 2009 , pp. 44-45.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, Stephen N. (2009). Carbohydrates in the hypothallus and areolae of the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. Symbiosis, 49 (2), pp. 95-100.

Hurrell, Edward, Kucerova, Eva, Loughlin, Michael, Caubilla-Barron, Juncal, Hilton, Anthony C., Armstrong, Richard A., Smith, Craig, Grant, Judith, Shoo, Shiu and Forsythe, Stephen (2009). Neonatal enteral feeding tubes as loci for colonisation by members of the Enterobacteriaceae. BMC Infectious Diseases, 9 (146),

Armstrong, Richard A. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2009). Laminar distribution of the pathological changes in frontal and temporal cortex in 8 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy. Clinical Neuropathology, 28 (5), pp. 350-357.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2009). Statnote 18: comparison of regression lines. Microbiologist, 2009 , pp. 40-41.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2009). Statnote 17: using a regression line for prediction and calibration. Microbiologist, 2009 , pp. 36-37.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2009). Statnote 16: fitting a regression line to data. Microbiologist, 2009 , pp. 40-42.

Armstrong, Richard A., Ironside, J.W., Lantos, Peter L. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2009). A quantitative study of the pathological changes in the cerebellum in 15 cases of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD). Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 35 (1), pp. 36-45.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Eperjesi, Frank (2009). Data methods in optometry Part 9: experimental design and analysis of variance. Optometry Today, 2009 (Januar), pp. 48-52.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, Peter L. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2009). Hippocampal pathology in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): a quantitative study of 8 cases. Clinical Neuropathology, 28 (1), pp. 46-53.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2009). Alzheimer’s disease and the eye. Journal of Optometry, 2 (3), pp. 102-111.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2009). Monthly fluctuations in radial growth of individual lobes of the lichen Parmelia conspersa (Erhr. ex Ach.) Ach. Symbiosis, 47 (1), pp. 9-15.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2009). Pathological changes in the sporadic and variant forms Of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) are spatially related to blood vessels. Brain Research Journal, 2 (3), pp. 149-162.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2008). Statnote 15: the non-parametric correlation coefficients. Microbiologist, 2008 , pp. 41-43.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2008). The genetics of primary congenital glaucoma. Optometry Today, 2008 (Decemb), pp. 40-43.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2008). Statnote 14: the correlation of two variables (Pearson's 'r'). Microbiologist, 2008 , pp. 34-36.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, Peter L. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2008). What determines the molecular composition of abnormal protein aggregates in neurodegenerative disease? Neuropathology, 28 (4), pp. 351-65.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2008). The interface between Alzheimer's disease, normal aging, and related disorders. Current Aging Science, 1 (2), pp. 122-132.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2008). Lichen competition: two-dimensional warfare in slow motion. Microbiologist, 2008 , pp. 27-31.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2008). Statnote 13: a more complex analysis of variance incorporating a 'repeated measures' factor. Microbiologist, 2008 , pp. 37-39.

Heitmar, Rebekka, Gherghel, Doina, Armstrong, Richard A., Cubbidge, Robert P and Hosking, Sarah (2008). The effect of voluntary fasting and dehydration on flicker-induced retinal vascular dilation in a healthy individual: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 2 (153), pp. 1-7.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Eperjesi, Frank (2008). Data analysis methods in optometry Part 8: Principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA). Optometry Today, 2008 (March), pp. 40-44.

Gherghel, Doina, Hosking, Sarah L., Cunliffe, Ian A. and Armstrong, Richard A. (2008). First-line therapy with latanoprost 0.005% results in improved ocular circulation in newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma patients: a prospective, 6-month, open-label study. Eye, 22 (3), pp. 363-369.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2008). Statnote 12: the split-plot analysis of variance. Microbiologist, 2008 , pp. 38-39.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2008). Visual signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 91 (2), pp. 129-38.

Armstrong, Richard A., Syed, Anila B. and Smith, C.U.M. (2008). Density and cross-sectional areas of axons in the olfactory tract in control subjects and Alzheimer's disease:an image analysis study. Neurological Sciences, 29 (1), pp. 23-27.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2008). Spatial correlations between β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits and blood vessels in familial Alzheimer's disease. Folia Neuropathologica, 46 (4), pp. 241-248.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2008). Clustering and periodicity of neurofibrillary tangles in the upper and lower cortical laminae in Alzheimer's disease. Folia Neuropathologica, 46 (1), pp. 26-31.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2008). Spatial correlations between beta-amyloid (A beta) deposits and blood vessels in familial Alzheimer's disease. Folia Neuropathologica, 46 (4), pp. 241-248.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2008). The spatial patterns of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's Disease Research Journal, 1 (4), pp. 267-278.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, Peter L. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2007). Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP):A quantitative study of the pathological changes in cortical and subcortical regions of eight cases. Journal of Neural Transmission, 114 (12), pp. 1569-1577.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2007). Statnote 11: the two-factor analysis of variance. Microbiologist, 2007 , pp. 40-42.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2007). Statnote 10: the two-way analysis of variance. Microbiologist, 2007 , pp. 41-42.

Gherghel, Doina, Hosking, Sarah L., Armstrong, Richard A. and Cunliffe, Ian A. (2007). Autonomic dysfunction in unselected and untreated primary open angle glaucoma patients:A pilot study. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 27 (4), pp. 336-341.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Eperjesi, Frank (2007). Data analysis methods in optometry Part 7: multiple linear regression. Optometry Today, 2007 (June), pp. 46-50.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2007). Statnote 9: The one-way analysis of variance (random effects model). Microbiologist, 2007 , pp. 40-41.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (2007). A quantitative study of the pathological changes in white matter in multiple system atrophy. Neuropathology, 27 (3), pp. 221-227.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2007). The unnatural history of the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. Microbiologist, 2007 , pp. 36-39.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Welch, A.R. (2007). Competition in lichen communities. Symbiosis, 43 (1), pp. 1-12.

Bradwell, Tom and Armstrong, Richard A. (2007). Growth rates of Rhizocarpon geographicum lichens:A review with new data from Iceland. Journal of Quaternary Science, 22 (4), pp. 311-320.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2007). Neuropathological changes in striate and extrastriate visual cortex in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Clinical Ophthalmology, 1 (2), pp. 119-25.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2007). Spatial patterns of the pathological changes in neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID):an α-internexin immunohistochemical study. Journal of Neural Transmission, 114 (4), pp. 451-456.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2007). Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): general pathology and visual signs and symptoms. Optometry Today, 2007 (March), pp. 48-52.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2007). Statnote 8: statistical power and sample size. Microbiologist, 2007 , pp. 38-40.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, Peter L. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2007). Spatial topography of the neurofibrillary tangles in cortical and subcortical regions in progressive supranuclear palsy. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 13 (1), pp. 50-54.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2007). Size frequency distributions of abnormal protein deposits in Alzheimer’s disease and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Folia Neuropathologica, 45 (3), pp. 108-114.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2006). Statnote 7: chi-square contingency tables. Microbiologist, 2006 , pp. 36-37.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2006). Classic beta-amyloid deposits cluster around large diameter blood vessels rather than capillaries in sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Current Neurovascular Research, 3 (4), pp. 289-294.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2006). Laminar degeneration of the frontal and temporal cortex in neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID):a study using a-internexin immunohistochemistry. Clinical Neuropathology, 25 (5), pp. 209-215.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (2006). Multiple system atrophy (MSA): Topographic distribution of the alpha-synuclein-associated pathological changes. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 12 (6), pp. 356-362.

Armstrong, Richard A., Kerty, E., Skullerud, K. and Cairns, N. J. (2006). Neuropathological changes in ten cases of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID):A study using α-internexin immunohistochemistry and principal components analysis (PCA). Journal of Neural Transmission, 113 (9), pp. 1207-1215.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2006). Statnote 6: post-hoc ANOVA tests. Microbiologist, 2006 , pp. 34-36.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Eperjesi, Frank (2006). Data methods in optometry. Part 6: fitting a regression line to data. Optometry Today, 2006 (June), pp. 48-51.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Ironside, J.W. (2006). Size frequency distributions of the florid prion protein aggregates in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease follow a power-law function. Neurological Sciences, 27 (2), pp. 104-109.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2006). Statnote 5: Is one set of data more variable than another? Microbiologist, 2006 , pp. 34-36.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2006). Topography of α-internexin-positive neuronal aggregates in 10 patients with neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease. European Journal of Neurology, 13 (5), pp. 528-532.

Caddick, Jonathan M., Hilton, Anthony C., Armstrong, Richard A., Lambert, Peter A., Worthington, Tony and Elliott, Tom S.J. (2006). Description and critical appraisal of principal components analysis (PCA) methodology applied to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 65 (1), pp. 87-95.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2006). Methods of studying the planar distribution of objects in histological sections of brain tissue. Journal of Microscopy, 221 (3), pp. 153-158.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2006). Laminar distribution of β-amyloid deposits in dementia with Lewy bodies and in Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias, 21 (3), pp. 175-181.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2006). Statnote 4: what if the data are not normal? Microbiologist, 2006 , pp. 34-37.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2006). Developmental anomalies of the eye: the genetic link. Optometry Today, 2006 (Januar), pp. 29-32.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2006). Measuring the spatial arrangement patterns of pathological lesions in histological sections of brain tissue. Folia Neuropathologica, 44 (4), pp. 229-237.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2006). Plaques and tangles and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Folia Neuropathologica, 44 (1), pp. 1-11.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2006). Seasonal growth of the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. in South Gwynedd, Wales. Symbiosis, 41 (2), pp. 97-102.

Cairns, Nigel J. and Armstrong, Richard A. (2005). Spatial patterns of the pathological changes in the temporal lobe of patients with neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease. Neuropathology, 25 (4), pp. 298-303.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2005). Statnote 3: testing the difference between two groups. Microbiologist, 2005 , pp. 30-32.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2005). Radial growth of Rhizocarpon section Rhizocarpon lichen thalli over six years at snoqualmie pass in the Cascade Range, Washington State. Arctic Antarctic and Alpine research, 37 (4), pp. 411-415.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J., Ironside, J.W. and Lantos, Peter L. (2005). Size frequency distribution of prion protein (PrP) aggregates in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Journal of Neural Transmission, 112 (11), pp. 1565-1573.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2005). Statnote 2: describing the normal. Microbiologist, 2005 , pp. 30-33.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2005). Ocular and ophthalmic features of Alzheimer's disease. Indian Optician , pp. 108-114.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, Peter L. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2005). Overlap between neurodegenerative disorders. Neuropathology, 25 (2), pp. 111-124.

Hilton, Anthony and Armstrong, Richard A. (2005). Statnote 1: is the data normal? Microbiologist, 2005 , pp. 34-35.

Cairns, Nigel J. and Armstrong, Richard A. (2005). Spatial correlations between the neuronal inclusions, swollen achromatic neurons, and glial cells in neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID). Journal of Neural Transmission, 112 (4), pp. 473-480.

Armstrong, Richard A., Eperjesi, Frank and Gilmartin, Bernard (2005). The use of correlation and regression methods in optometry. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 88 (2), pp. 81-88.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Eperjesi, Frank (2005). Data analysis methods in optometry. Part 5: correlation. Optometry Today, 2005 (Februa), pp. 34-37.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2005). Growth curves of four crustose lichens. Symbiosis, 38 (1), pp. 47-57.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2005). Is there a spatial association between senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease? Folia Neuropathologica, 43 (3), pp. 133-138.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, Peter L. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2005). Multiple system atrophy:laminar distribution of the pathological changes in frontal and temporal neocortex - a study in ten patients. Clinical Neuropathology, 24 (5), pp. 230-235.

Syed, Anila B., Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, Christopher U.M. (2005). A quantitative analysis of optic nerve axons in elderly control subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Folia Neuropathologica, 43 (1), pp. 1-6.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2004). AMD and smoking: an update. Optometry Today, 2004 (Decemb), pp. 44-46.

Elloway, E.A.G., Armstrong, Richard A., Bird, R.A., Kelly, S.L. and Smith, S.N. (2004). Analysis of Acanthamoeba polyphaga surface carbohydrate exposure by FITC-lectin binding and flourescence evaluation. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 97 (6), pp. 1319-1325.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Hilton, Anthony (2004). The use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) in applied microbiology. Microbiologist, 2004 , pp. 18-21.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2004). Lichens, lichenometry and global warming. Microbiologist, 2004 , pp. 32-35.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, Stephen N. (2004). Genetics of optic atrophy: recent progress in understanding. Optometry Today, 2004 (July), pp. 32-36.

Cairns, Nigel J. and Armstrong, Richard A. (2004). Quantification of the pathological changes in the temporal lobe of patients with a novel neurofilamentopathy:neurofilament inclusion disease (NID). Clinical Neuropathology, 23 (3), pp. 107-112.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (2004). A quantitative study of the pathological changes in ten patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Journal of Neural Transmission, 111 (4), pp. 485-495.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Eperjesi, Frank (2004). Data analysis methods in optometry Part 4: an introduction to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Optometry Today, 2004 (March), pp. 33-36.

Cairns, N.J., Jaros, E., Perry, R.H. and Armstrong, Richard A. (2004). Temporal lobe pathology of human patients with neurofilament inclusion disease. Neuroscience Letters, 354 (3), pp. 245-247.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, Peter L. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2004). Spatial patterns of asynuclein positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy. Movement Disorders, 19 (1), pp. 109-112.

Cairns, N.J., Jaros, E., Perry, R.H. and Armstrong, Richard A. (2004). Laminar distribution of neurofilament inclusions and swollen achromatic neurons in neurofilament inclusion disease (NID). Neuroscience Research Communications, 34 (2), pp. 104-111.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2003). Could lichens grow on Mars? Microbiologist, 2003 , pp. 30-33.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2003). Measuring the degree of spatial correlation between histological features in thin sections of brain tissue. Neuropathology, 23 (4), pp. 245-253.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, Peter L., Ironside, J.W. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2003). Spatial correlations between the vacuolation, prion protein deposition and surviving neurons in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD). Journal of Neural Transmission, 110 (11), pp. 1303-1311.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, N.J., Ironside, J.W. and Lantos, P.L. (2003). Does the neuropathology of human patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease reflect haematogenous spread of the disease? Neuroscience Letters, 348 (1), pp. 37-40.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, Peter L., Ironside, J.W. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2003). Differences in the density and spatial distribution of florid and diffuse plaques in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Clinical Neuropathology, 22 (5), pp. 209-214.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2003). Getting your proteins in a twist: disease caused by prions. Microbiologist, 2003 , pp. 32-35.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, Peter L. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2003). A quantitative study of the pathological changes in cortical neurons in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neuropathology, 23 (3), pp. 181-187.

Cairns, Nigel J. and Armstrong, Richard A. (2003). Clustering of neuronal inclusions in "dementia with neurofilament inclusions". Acta Neuropathologica, 106 (2), pp. 125-128.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2003). Lobe connections and lobe crowding are associated with growth rate in the lichen Xanthoparmelia conspersa. Symbiosis, 34 (2), pp. 133-143.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2003). Bug-eyed; eye infections caused by bacteria. Microbiologist, 2003 , pp. 26-30.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2003). Quantifying the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders:Quantitative measurements, sampling strategies and data analysis. Histopathology, 42 (6), pp. 521-529.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2003). Pathological changes in the primary visual cortex (area V1) in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Optometry and Vision Science, 80 (4), pp. 298-304.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2003). Is smoking a risk factor for AMD? Optometry Today, 2003 (Februa), pp. 42-45.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2003). The Human Genome Project: its relevance to ocular disease. Optometry Today, 2003 (Februa), pp. 39-43.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J., Ironside, J.W. and Lantos, Peter L. (2003). Florid prion protein (PrP) plaques in patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) are spatially related to blood vessels. Neuroscience Research Communications, 32 (1), pp. 29-36.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2003). Dementia with Lewy bodies: a 'new' type of dementia with visual symptoms. Optometry Today, 2003 (Januar), pp. 39-41.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2003). Lobe growth in foliose lichen thalli. Current Topics in Plant Biology, 4 , pp. 129-138.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2003). Spatial patterns of the pathological changes in the cerebellar cortex in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Folia Neuropathologica, 41 (4), pp. 183-189.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, N., Ironside, J. and Lantos, P. (2002). The spatial patterns of prion protein deposits in cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Acta Neuropathologica, 104 (6), pp. 665-669.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, Peter L. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2002). Spatial patterns of the vacuolation in subcortical white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Clinical Neuropathology, 21 (6), pp. 284-288.

Smith, Stephen N., Armstrong, Richard A., Bird, Roger A., Chohan, Rita, Hartell, Nick A. and Poyner, David A. (2002). Characterization of FITC-conjugated lectin binding to Candida albicans. Mycologia, 93 (3), pp. 422-431.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (2002). Are pathological lesions in neurodegenerative disorders the cause or the effect of the degeneration? Neuropathology, 22 (3), pp. 133-146.

Gardiner, A.M., Armstrong, Richard A., Dunne, Mark C.M. and Murray, P.I. (2002). Correlation between visual function and visual ability in patients with uveitis. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 86 (9), pp. 993-996.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2002). The effect of rock surface aspect on growth, size structure and competition in the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 48 (2), pp. 187-194.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J., Ironside, J.W. and Lantos, Peter L. (2002). Quantitative variations in the pathology of 11 cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Pathophysiology, 8 (4), pp. 235-241.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Eperjesi, Frank (2002). Data analysis methods in optometry Part 3: the analysis of frequencies and proportions. Optometry Today, 2001 (May), pp. 34-37.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J., Ironside, J.W. and Lantos, Peter L. (2002). Quantification of vacuolation ('spongiform change'), surviving neurones and prion protein deposition in eleven cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 28 (2), pp. 129-135.

Armstrong, Richard A., Eperjesi, Frank and Gilmartin, Bernard (2002). The application of analysis of variance (ANOVA) to different experimental designs in optometry. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 22 (3), pp. 248-256.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2002). Gene therapy and ocular disease. Optician, 223 (Apr 12), pp. 26-31.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J., Ironside, J.W. and Lantos, Peter L. (2002). The spatial pattern of the vacuolation ('spongiform change') in the cerebral cortex in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Neuroscience Research Communications, 30 (1), pp. 43-50.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2002). Laminar distribution of amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposits in dementia with Lewy bodies: comparison with Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Reports, 5 , pp. 7-12.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J., Ironside, J.W. and Lantos, Peter L. (2002). Laminar distribution of the pathological changes in the cerebral cortex in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Folia Neuropathologica, 40 (4), pp. 165-171.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2002). Measuring the degree of spatial correlation between pathological lesions in Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Reports, 5 , pp. 45-54.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, Peter L. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2001). Quantification of the pathological changes with laminar depth in the cortex in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Pathophysiology, 8 (2), pp. 99-104.

Armstrong, R., Cairns, N. and Lantos, P. (2001). Quantification of the vacuolation (spongiform change) and prion protein deposition in 11 patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Acta Neuropathologica, 102 (6), pp. 591-596.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, Peter L. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2001). Spatial correlations between the vacuolation, prion protein deposits, and surviving neurons in the cerebral cortex in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neuropathology, 21 (4), pp. 266-271.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, Peter L. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2001). Correlations between the clustering patterns of the pathological changes in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neuroscience Research Communications, 29 (2), pp. 89-98.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2001). Genetics of ocular disease part 4: New developments in genetics. Optician, 222 (Oct 19), pp. 22-25.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2001). Genetics of ocular disease Part 3: Patterns of inheritance of ocular disease. Optician, 222 (Sep 21), pp. 18-26.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2001). Ulcerative keratitis caused by Acanthamoeba. Optometry Today, 2001 (Septem), pp. 36-38.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2001). Genetics of ocular disease Part 2: Basic concepts: DNA, proteins and genes. Optician, 222 (Aug 17), pp. 16-22.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, Peter L. and Cairns, Nigel J. (2001). The spatial patterns of pathological brain lesions in 12 patients with corticobasal degeneration. Pathophysiology, 8 (1), pp. 47-53.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2001). Genetics of ocular disease Part 1: Basic concepts: cells, chromosomes and inheritance. Optician, 222 (Jul 20), pp. 22-27.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (2001). Spatial pattern of prion protein deposits in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Neuropathology, 21 (1), pp. 19-24.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (2001). What does the study of the spatial patterns of pathological lesions tell us about the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders? Neuropathology, 21 (1), pp. 1-12.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Eperjesi, Frank (2001). Data analysis methods in optometry: is there a difference between two samples? Part 2. Optometry Today, 2001 (Januar), pp. 27-31.

Armstrong, Richard A., Lantos, P.L. and Cairns, N.J. (2001). The spatial patterns of prion protein deposits in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease:Comparison with β-amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience Letters, 298 (1), pp. 53-56.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2001). Analysis of population dispersion in histological sections. Microscopy and Analysis, 86 , pp. 13-15.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2001). Changes in the clustering patterns of beta-amyloid (Abeta) with age in Down's syndrome. Alzheimers Reports, 4 , pp. 37-43.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2001). Dispersion of classic beta-amyloid deposits around blood vessels in Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Reports, 4 (2), pp. 103-108.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2001). Size frequency distribution of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits in dementia with Lewy bodies. Alzheimers Reports, 4 , pp. 167-172.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Bradwell, T. (2001). Variation in hypothallus width and the growth of the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. Symbiosis, 30 (4), pp. 317-328.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2000). The Rod photoreceptor ABCR gene and its significance in ocular disease. Optician, 220 (Dec 15), pp. 19-24.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2000). Laminar distribution of ballooned neurons and tau positive neurons with inclusions in patients with corticobasal degeneration. Neuroscience Research Communications, 27 (2), pp. 85-93.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, Stephen N. (2000). The genetics of cataract. Optometry Today, 2000 (Novemb), pp. 33-35.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2000). The microbiology of the eye. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 20 (6), pp. 429-441.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (2000). Clustering of Pick bodies in the dentate gyrus in Pick's disease. Neuropathology, 20 (3), pp. 170-175.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (2000). Beta-amyloid deposition in the temporal lobe of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies:Comparison with non-demented cases and Alzheimer's disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 11 (4), pp. 187-192.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Eperjesi, Frank (2000). The use of data analysis methods: basic concepts for optometrists. Optometry Today, 2000 (June), pp. 36-40.

Armstrong, Richard A., Nochlin, David and Bird, T.D. (2000). Neuropathological heterogeneity in Alzheimer's disease:A study of 80 cases using principal components analysis. Neuropathology, 20 (1), pp. 31-37.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (2000). A quantitative study of the pathological lesions in the neocortex and hippocampus of twelve patients with corticobasal degeneration. Experimental Neurology, 163 (2), pp. 348-356.

Hazel, Charlotte A., Petre, Keziah L., Armstrong, Richard A., Benson, Mark T. and Frost, N. Andrew (2000). Visual function and subjective quality of life compared in subjects with acquired macular disease. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 41 (6), pp. 1309-1315.

Armstrong, Richard A., Slade, S.V. and Eperjesi, Frank (2000). An introduction to analysis of variance (ANOVA) with special reference to data from clinical experiments in optometry. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 20 (3), pp. 235-241.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (2000). The spatial pattern of the vacuolation in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neuroscience Letters, 281 (2-3), pp. 187-190.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2000). Analysis of spatial patterns in histological sections of brain tissue using a method based on regression. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 95 (1), pp. 39-45.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2000). Competitive interactions between four foliose lichen species with and without nutrient enrichment. Symbiosis, 28 (4), pp. 323-335.

Syed, Anila B., Armstrong, Richard A. and Christopher, U. (2000). Quantification of axonal loss in Alzheimer's disease:An image analysis study. Alzheimers Reports, 3 (1), pp. 19-24.

Syed, A., Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, C. (2000). Quantification of axonal loss in Alzheimer’s disease: an image analysis study. Alzheimers Reports, 3 (1), pp. 19-24.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2000). Visual signs and symptoms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. British Journal of Optometry and Dispensing, 8 (1), pp. 29-33.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2000). The spatial patterns of beta-amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Reports, 3 (3), pp. 133-141.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2000). The visual complications of Parkinson's disease. British Journal of Optometry and Dispensing, 8 (3), pp. 86-90.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, Stephen A. (1999). Retinitis pigmentosa and the new genetics. Optometry Today, 1999 (Decemb), pp. 26-32.

Smith, S.N., Armstrong, Richard A., Barker, M., Bird, R.A., Chohan, R., Hartell, N.A. and Whipps, J.M. (1999). Determination of Coniothyrium minitans conidial and germling lectin avidity by flow cytometry and digital microscopy. Mycological Research, 103 (12), pp. 1533-1539.

Livesley, M.A., Smith, S.N., Armstrong, Richard A. and Barker, G.A. (1999). Characterisation of Aeromonas strains and species by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and principal components analysis. Journal of Fish Diseases, 22 (5), pp. 369-375.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (1999). Laminar distribution of Pick bodies, Pick cells and Alzheimer disease pathology in the frontal and temporal cortex in Pick's disease. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 25 (4), pp. 266-271.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (1999). Clustering of cerebral cortical lesions in patients with corticobasal degeneration. Neuroscience Letters, 268 (1), pp. 5-8.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1999). Ocular disease and the new genetics. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 19 (3), pp. 193-195.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (1999). Quantification of pathological lesions in the frontal and temporal lobe of ten patients diagnosed with Pick's disease. Acta Neuropathologica, 97 (5), pp. 456-462.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, S.N. (1999). Retinoblastoma and the new genetics. Optometry Today, 1999 (March), pp. 43-47.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1999). Do β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome grow according to the log-normal model? Neuroscience Letters, 261 (1-2), pp. 97-100.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1999). Factors associated with lobe division in the lichen Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh. ex. Ach.)Ach. Symbiosis, 26 (3), pp. 265-277.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1999). Clustering patterns of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Reports, 2 (3), pp. 151-154.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1999). Degeneration of cortical neurons associated with diffuse beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscience Research Communications, 24 (2), pp. 89-97.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1999). Multiple sclerosis and the eye. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 19 (S2), S32-S42.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1999). Visual signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. British Journal of Optometry and Dispensing, 7 (4), pp. 135-139.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1999). The spatial patterns of Pick bodies, Pick cells and Alzheimer’s disease pathology in Pick’s disease. Neuropathology, 19 , pp. 64-70.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1998). The spatial pattern of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits in Alzheimer’s disease patients is related to apolipoprotein genotype. Neuroscience Research Communications, 22 (2), pp. 90-106.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (1998). Spatial distribution of diffuse, primitive, and classic amyloid-beta deposits and blood vessels in the upper laminae of the frontal cortex in Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 12 (4), pp. 378-383.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1998). Free radicals, ocidative stress and cataract. Optometry Today, 1998 (Novemb), pp. 34-37.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1998). A comparison of histological and immunohistochemical methods for quantifying the pathological lesions of Pick's disease. Neuropathology, 18 (3), pp. 295-300.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1998). β-amyloid plaques:Stages in life history or independent origin? Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 9 (4), pp. 227-238.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, S.N. (1998). Does radial growth of the lichen Parmelia conspersa depend exclusively on growth processes at the lobe tip? Environmental and Experimental Botany, 39 (3), pp. 263-269.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (1998). The spatial patterns of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer's Research, 4 (1), pp. 5-10.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1998). Viruses and the eye. Optometry Today, 1998 (April), pp. 35-39.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (1998). The spatial patterns of Lewy bodies, senile plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles in dementia with Lewy bodies. Experimental Neurology, 150 (1), pp. 122-127.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (1998). Clustering of Pick bodies in patients with Pick's disease. Neuroscience Letters, 242 (2), pp. 81-84.

Smith, S.N., Chohan, R., Armstrong, Richard A. and Whipps, J.M. (1998). Hydrophobicity and surface electrostatic charge of conidia of the mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans. Mycological Research, 102 (2), pp. 243-249.

Armstrong, Richard A., Wade, K.M., Nochlin, D. and Bird, T.D. (1998). Is neuropathological heterogeneity in Alzheimer’s disease related to apolipoprotein genotype? Alzheimers Reports, 1 (4), pp. 217-221.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, N.J. and Lantos, P.L. (1998). Lewy body and Alzheimer pathology in temporal lobe in dementia with Lewy bodies. Alzheimers Reports, 1 (3), pp. 159-163.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1998). The immune system and the eye. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 18 (S2), S40-S48.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1997). Size distribution curves of senile plaques in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: do plaques grow according to the log-normal model? Alzheimer's Research, 3 (1), pp. 63-67.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1997). Parkinson's disease and the eye. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 17 (S2), S9-S16.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, N.J and Lantos, P.L. (1997). Laminar distribution of cortical Lewy bodies and neurofibrillary tangles in dementia with Lewy bodies. Neuroscience Research Communications, 21 (2), pp. 145-152.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1997). Are metal ions accumulated by saxicolous lichens growing in a rural environment? Environmental and Experimental Botany, 38 (1), pp. 73-79.

Armstrong, Richard A., Myers, D. and Smith, C.U.M. (1997). Factors determining the size frequency distribution of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in Alzheimer's disease. Experimental Neurology, 145 (2), pp. 574-579.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (1997). β-Amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the medial temporal lobe of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. Neuroscience Letters, 227 (3), pp. 193-196.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1997). Analysis of spatial patterns in histological sections of brain tissue. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 73 (2), pp. 141-147.

Armstrong, Richard A., Smith, Stephen N. and Titcomb, L.C. (1997). Fungi and the eye. Optometry Today, 1997 (May), pp. 32-35.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J. and Lantos, Peter L. (1997). Dementia with Lewy bodies:Clustering of Lewy bodies in human patients. Neuroscience Letters, 224 (1), pp. 41-44.

Winsper, Sarah J., Armstrong, Richard A., Hodgkins, Paul S. and Blair, John A. (1997). Gallium-transferrin binding in treated and untreated Parkinson's disease. NeuroReport, 8 (3), pp. 709-711.

Livesley, M. Anne, Smith, Stephen N., Armstrong, Richard A. and Barker, Gavin A. (1997). Analysis of plasmid profiles of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 146 (2), pp. 297-301.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, S.N. (1997). Factors associated with degeneration of the thallus centre in foliose lichens. Symbiosis, 22 (3), pp. 293-302.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1996). Correlations between the morphology of diffuse and primitive beta-amyloid (A beta) deposits and the frequency of associated cells in Down's syndrome. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 22 (6), pp. 527-30.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, S.N. (1996). Factors determining the growth curve of the foliose lichen Parmelia conspersa. New Phytologist, 134 (3), pp. 517-522.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1996). Visual field defects in Alzheimer's disease patients may reflect differential pathology in the primary visual cortex. Optometry and Vision Science, 73 (11), pp. 677-682.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1996). Bacteria and the eye. Optometry Today, 1996 (Octobe), pp. 28-30.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, S.N. (1996). Do the lichens Xanthoparmelia conspersa (Ach.) Hale and Rhizocarpon Ram. Em. Th. Fr. subgenus Rhizocarpon utilise exogenous carbohydrates for radial growth? Environmental and Experimental Botany, 36 (1), pp. 13-20.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J., Patel, R., Lantos, Peter L. and Rossor, M.N. (1996). Relationships between beta-amyloid (A beta) deposits and blood vessels in patients with sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience Letters, 207 (3), pp. 171-174.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J., Myers, D., Smith, C.U.M., Lantos, Peter L. and Rossor, M.N. (1996). A comparison of beta-amyloid deposition in the medial temporal lobe in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome and normal elderly brains. Experimental Neurology, 5 (1), pp. 35-41.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Carroll, Helen (1996). Neurological and ocular abnormalities in patients with Down's syndrome. Optometry Today, 1996 (Februa), pp. 22-24.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, S.N. (1996). Experimental studies of hypothallus growth in the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. New Phytologist, 132 (1), pp. 123-126.

Armstrong, Richard A., Winsper, S.J. and Blair, J.A. (1996). Aluminium and Alzheimer's disease: review of possible pathogenic mechanisms. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 7 (1), pp. 1-9.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Syed, A.B. (1996). Alzheimer's disease and the eye. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 16 (S1), S2-S8.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1996). Are neuritic plaques in Alzheimer’s disease related to neurofibrillary tangles? Alzheimer's Research, 2 , pp. 69-71.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1996). Beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits and blood vessels: laminar distribution in the frontal cortex of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscience Research Communications, 18 (1), pp. 19-28.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1996). Is beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposition in the frontal cortex of patients with Alzheimer’s disease related to blood vessels? Alzheimer's Research, 2 , pp. 47-50.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Wood, L. (1996). Spatial pattern analysis of beta-amyloid (A beta) deposits in Alzheimer disease by linear regression. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 10 (1), pp. 40-45.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1996). Spatial pattern analysis of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits in Alzheimer's disease by linear regression. Parkinson/Alzheimer Digest, 5 , pp. 24-25.

Armstrong, Richard A., Wood, L., Myers, D. and Smith, C.U.M. (1996). The use of multivariate methods in the identification of subtypes of Alzheimer's disease: a comparison of principal components and cluster analysis. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 7 (4), pp. 215-220.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1995). Is the clustering of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the frontal cortex of Alzheimer patients determined by blood vessels? Neuroscience Letters, 195 (2), pp. 121-124.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1995). Alzheimer's disease and vision: a proposed new diagnostic test. Optometry Today, 1995 (July), pp. 16-17.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1995). Factors determining the morphology of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in Down's syndrome. Experimental Neurology, 4 (2), pp. 179-186.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1995). A comparison of βamyloid (aβ deposition in the medial temporal lobe in late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease, and down's syndrome. Amyloid, 2 (2), pp. 107-113.

Armstrong, Richard A., Winsper, S.J. and Blair, J.A. (1995). Hypothesis: is Alzheimer's disease a metal-induced immune disorder? Experimental Neurology, 4 (1), pp. 107-111.

Armstrong, Richard A., Myers, D. and Smith, C.U.M. (1995). What determines the size frequency distribution of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in Alzheimer's disease patients? Neuroscience Letters, 187 (1), pp. 13-16.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1995). The human immune system Part 2: auto-immune disorders. Optometry Today, 1995 (Februa), pp. 24-27.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1995). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the eye. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 15 (S2), S42-S48.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1995). Beta-amyloid deposition in the medial temporal lobe in elderly non-demented brains and in Alzheimer's disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 6 (3), pp. 121-125.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1995). Lobe interactions within the thallus margin and the maintenance of symmetry in the lichen Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.)Ach. Symbiosis, 18 (2), pp. 129-142.

Blair, J.A., Winsper, S.J., Cattell, R.J. and Armstrong, Richard A. (1995). The levels of neopterin, biopterin and the neopterin/biopterin ratio in urine from control subjects and patients with Alzheimer’s disease and Down’s syndrome. Pteridines, 6 , pp. 185-189.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1995). The spatial patterns of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits in elderly non-demented patients and patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscience Research Communications, 16 (3), pp. 137-144.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, C.U.M. (1994). Beta-amyloid (beta/A4) deposition in the medial temporal lobe in Down's syndrome: effects of brain region and patient age. Neurobiology of Disease, 1 (3), pp. 139-144.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1994). The spatial patterns of β/A4 deposit subtypes in Down's syndrome. Acta Neuropathologica, 88 (4), pp. 353-358.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1994). β-Amyloid (Aβ) deposition in elderly non-demented patients and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience Letters, 178 (1), pp. 59-62.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Wood, L. (1994). The identification of pathological subtypes of Alzheimer's disease using cluster analysis. Acta Neuropathologica, 88 (1), pp. 60-66.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, S.N. (1994). The levels of ribitol, arabitol and mannitol in individual lobes of the lichen Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.) ACH. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 34 (3), pp. 253-260.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1994). Parkinson's disease Part 2: visual aspects. Optometry Today, 1994 (June), pp. 36-38.

Smith, S.N., Chohan, R., Howitt, S.G. and Armstrong, Richard A. (1994). Proteolytic activity amongst selected Saprolegnia species. Mycological Research, 98 (4), pp. 389-395.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1994). Differences in β-amyloid ( β A4) deposition in human patients with Down's syndrome and sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience Letters, 169 (1-2), pp. 133-136.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1994). Dispersal of soredia from individual soralia of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. in a simple wind tunnel. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 34 (1), pp. 39-45.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Slaven, A. (1994). Does the neurodegeneration of Alzheimer’s disease spread between visual cortical regions B17 and B18 via the feedforward or feedback short cortico-cortical projections? Experimental Neurology, 3 , pp. 191-196.

Armstrong, Richard A., Cattell, R.J., Jones, S.A., Winsper, S, and Blair, J.A. (1994). Elevated urinary neopterin suggests immune activation in Alzheimer’s disease and Down’s syndrome. Neuroscience Research Communications, 14 (2), pp. 63-69.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1994). Neuropathological differences between areas B17 and B18: implications for visual evoked responses in Alzheimer's disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 5 (5), pp. 247-251.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1994). Quantitative differences in beta/A4 protein subtypes in the parahippocampal gyrus and frontal cortex in Alzheimer's disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 5 (1), pp. 1-5.

Blair, J.A., Williams, A., Wachter, H., Fuchs, D., Pall, H., Armstrong, Richard A. and Winsper, S.J. (1994). Serum neopterin levels and metal binding to transferrin in Parkinson's disease patients. Pteridines, 5 , pp. 114-116.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1994). Spatial patterns of plaques and tangles in alzheimer’s disease:Reply to Dr. Dani. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 5 (1), p. 54.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1994). The influence of bird droppings on the growth of lichen fragments transplanted to slate and cement substrates. Symbiosis, 17 (1), pp. 75-86.

Degg, C., Slaven, A. and Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). Chronotopographical analysis of the pattern onset visual evoked magnetic response (VEMR):Implications for waveform peak identification. Vision Research, 33 (17), pp. 2443-2446.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). Parkinson's disease Part 1: symptoms, diagnosis and changes in the brain. Optometry Today, 1993 (Octobe), pp. 19-20.

Hodgkins, Paul S., Prasher, Vee, Farrar, Gill, Armstrong, Richard A., Sturman, Steven, Corbett, John and Blair, John A. (1993). Reduced transferrin binding in Down syndrome:a route to senile plaque formation and dementia. NeuroReport, 5 (1), pp. 21-24.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). Is the clustering of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's patients related to the cells of origin of specific cortico-cortical projections? Neuroscience Letters, 160 (1), pp. 57-60.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). Factors determining lobe growth in foliose lichen thalli. New Phytologist, 124 (4), pp. 675-679.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). AIDS: neurological and ophthalmological aspects. Optometry Today, 1993 (June), pp. 32-33.

Armstrong, Richard A., Myers, D. and Smith, C.U.M. (1993). The spatial patterns of beta/A4 deposit subtypes in Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathologica, 86 (1), pp. 36-41.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). Seasonal growth of foliose lichens in successive years in South Gwynedd, Wales. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 33 (2), pp. 225-232.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). AIDS: structure, replication and spread of the AIDS virus. Optometry Today, 1993 (March), pp. 22-23.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). Ophthalmological manifestations of multiple sclerosis. Optometry Today, 1993 (Februa), pp. 32-34.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). Radial growth and carbohydrate levels in the lichen Parmelia conspersa on north and south facing rock surfaces. Symbiosis, 15 (1-2), pp. 27-49.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). Relationships between morphological types of plaque in Alzheimer’s disease as revealed in silver and immunostained preparations. Experimental Neurology, 2 , pp. 259-266.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). The growth of six saxicolous lichens transplanted to lime-rich and lime-poor substrates in south Gwynedd, Wales. Symbiosis, 15 (3), pp. 257-267.

Armstrong, Richard A., Myers, D. and Smith, C.U.M. (1993). The ratio of diffuse to mature beta/A4 deposits in Alzheimer's disease varies in cases with and without pronounced congophilic angiopathy. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 4 (5), pp. 251-255.

Armstrong, Richard A., Myers, D. and Smith, C.U.M. (1993). The size frequency distributions of beta-amyloid deposit subtypes in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience Research Communications, 13 (1), pp. 9-17.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). The spatial patterns of beta/A4 deposit subtypes and blood vessels in Alzheimer's disease cases with pronounced congophilic angiopathy. Neuroscience Research Communications, 12 (3), pp. 183-191.

Armstrong, Richard A., Myers, D. and Smith, C.U.M. (1993). The spatial patterns of plaques and tangles in Alzheimer's disease do not support the 'Cascade Hypothesis'. Parkinson/Alzheimer Digest, 6 , pp. 23-24.

Armstrong, Richard A., Myers, D. and Smith, C.U.M. (1993). The spatial patterns of plaques and tangles in Alzheimer's disease do not support the 'cascade hypothesis'. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 4 (1), pp. 16-20.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). The usefulness of spatial pattern analysis in understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, with particular reference to plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease. Experimental Neurology, 2 , pp. 73-80.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1992). Multiple sclerosis: natural history, diagnosis and changes in the brain. Optometry Today, 1992 (Novemb), pp. 22-24.

Armstrong, Richard A., Anderson, Juwa, Cowburn, Jim D., Cox, Juliette and Blair, John A. (1992). Aluminium administered in drinking water but not in the diet influences biopterin metabolism in the rodent. Biological Chemistry Hoppe-Seyler, 373 (2), pp. 1075-1078.

Degg, Christopher, Slaven, Antoinette and Armstrong, Richard A. (1992). Topographic mapping and source localization of the pattern onset visual evoked magnetic response. Brain Topography, 5 (1), pp. 11-16.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1992). A comparison of the growth curves of the foliose lichen Parmelia conspersa determined by a cross-sectional study and by direct measurement. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 32 (3), pp. 221-227.

Harding, G.F., Armstrong, Richard A. and Janday, B. (1992). Visual evoked electrical and magnetic response to half-field stimulation using pattern reversal stimulation. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 12 (2), pp. 171-174.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Myers, D. (1992). Beta/A4 deposits and their relationship to senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease. NeuroReport, 3 (3), pp. 262-264.

Harding, Graham, Janday, Balwinder and Armstrong, Richard A. (1992). The topographic distribution of the magnetic P100M to full- and half-field stimulation. Documenta Ophthalmologica, 80 (1), pp. 63-73.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1992). Soredial dispersal from individual soralia in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 32 (1), pp. 55-63.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1992). Alzheimer's disease: Are cellular neurofibrillary tangles linked to beta/A4 formation at the projection sites? Neuroscience Research Communications, 11 (3), pp. 171-178.

Armstrong, Richard A., Myers, D. and Smith, C.U.M. (1992). Alzheimer's disease: Size class frequency distributions of senile plaques: Do they indicate when a brain tissue was affected? Parkinson/Alzheimer Digest , pp. 24-25.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1992). Lobe growth variation and the maintenance of symmetry in foliose lichen thalli. Symbiosis, 12 (2), pp. 145-158.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1992). Principal components analysis of Alzheimer’s disease based on neuropathological data: A study of 79 patients. Neuroscience Research Communications, 11 (1), pp. 1-9.

Armstrong, Richard A., Myers, D. and Smith, C.U.M. (1992). The distribution of senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and beta/A4 deposits in the hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience Research Communications, 10 (2), pp. 87-94.

Armstrong, Richard A., Myers, David P., Smith, C.U.M., Cairns, Nigel J. and Luthert, P.J. (1992). The spatial pattern of senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and A4 deposits in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience Research Communications, 10 (1), pp. 27-33.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1991). Alzheimer's Disease Part 3: the Alzheimer patient in the practice. Optometry Today, 1991 (Octobe), pp. 12-13.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1991). Experimental studies of lobe growth in the lichen Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh. Ex Ach.) Ach. New Phytologist, 119 (2), pp. 315-319.

Harding, Graham F.A., Janday, Bal and Armstrong, Richard A. (1991). Topographic mapping and source localization of the pattern reversal visual evoked magnetic response. Brain Topography, 4 (1), pp. 47-55.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1991). Alzheimer's disease Part 2: visual changes. Optometry Today, 1991 (July), pp. 14-15.

Armstrong, Richard A., Myers, D. and Smith, C.U.M. (1991). Alzheimer's disease: size class frequency distribution of senile plaques: do they indicate when a brain tissue was affected? Neuroscience Letters, 127 (2), pp. 223-226.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1991). Looking at Alzheimer's disease: Part 1 symptoms, diagnosis and changes in the brain. Optometry Today, 1991 (June), pp. 10-11.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1991). The influence of climate on the dispersal of lichen soredia. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 31 (2), pp. 239-245.

Armstrong, Richard A., Myers, D., Smith, C.U.M., Cairns, Nigel J. and Luthert, P.J. (1991). Alzheimer's disease: the relationship between the density of senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and A4 protein in human patients. Neuroscience Letters, 123 (2), pp. 141-3.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1991). Competitive interactions between four foliose lichens on north and south facing rock surfaces. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 31 (1), pp. 51-58.

Armstrong, Richard A., Slaven, A. and Harding, G.F. (1991). The influence of age on the pattern and flash visual evoked magnetic response (VEMR). Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 11 (1), pp. 71-75.

Armstrong, Richard A., Slaven, A. and Harding, G.F. (1991). Visual evoked magnetic fields to flash and pattern in 100 normal subjects. Vision Research, 31 (11), pp. 1859-1864.

Cox, J., Armstrong, Richard A. and Blair, J.A. (1991). The influence of 2,4-Diamno-6-Hydroxypyrimidine and food retriction on tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism, neurotransmitters and behaviour. Pteridines, 3 , pp. 185-189.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1991). The relationship between senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid (A4) deposits in Alzheimer’s disease: A Principal Components Analysis. Neuroscience Research Communications, 9 (2), pp. 91-97.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1990). Dispersal, establishment and survival of soredia and fragments of the lichen, Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. New Phytologist, 114 (2), pp. 239-245.

Smith, S.N., Ince, E. and Armstrong, Richard A. (1990). Effect of osmotic and matrix potential on Saprolegnia diclina and S. ferax. Mycological Research, 94 (1), pp. 71-77.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1990). The influence of calcium and magnesium on the growth of the lichens Parmelia saxatilis and Xanthoria parietina on slate substrates. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 30 (1), pp. 51-57.

Armstrong, Richard A., Nochlin, D., Sumi, S.M. and Alvord, E.C. (1990). Neuropathological changes in the visual cortex in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience Research Communications, 6 (3), pp. 163-171.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1990). The relationship between the spatial pattern of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience Research Communications, 7 (2), pp. 105-111.

Coppen, A., Swade, C., Jones, S.A., Armstrong, Richard A., Blair, J.A. and Leeming, R.J. (1989). Depression and tetrahydrobiopterin: the folate connection. Journal of Affective Disorders, 16 (2-3), pp. 103-107.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Janday, B. (1989). A brief review of magnetic fields from the human visual system. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 9 (3), pp. 299-301.

Myers, D., Armstrong, Richard A., Smith, C.U.M. and Carter, R.A. (1988). The spatial arrangement patterns of senile plaques in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT). Neuroscience Research Communications, 2 (2), pp. 99-106.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1987). Dispersal in a population of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 27 (3), pp. 357-363.

Anderson, J., Blair, J.A. and Armstrong, Richard A. (1987). The effect of age on tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism in the human brain. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 50 (2), p. 231.

Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, S.N. (1987). Development and growth of the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. Symbiosis, 3 (3), pp. 287-300.

Jones, S.A., Armstrong, Richard A., Blair, J.A., Leeming, R.J., Chaudhry, C., Swade, C. and Coppen, A. (1987). Tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT). Biochemical Society Transactions, 15 (4), pp. 713-714.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1986). Competition between three lichen species using a factorial experimental design. New Phytologist, 104 (4), pp. 637-641.

Armstrong, Richard A., Sahota, A., Blair, J.A. and Cohen, B.E. (1986). Genetic analysis of partial dihydropteridine reductase deficiency in families with mental retardation. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, 9 (4), pp. 400-401.

Sahota, A., Leeming, R.J., Blair, J.A., Armstrong, Richard A., Green, A. and Cohen, B.E. (1986). Partial dihydropteridine reductase deficiency and mental retardation. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, 9 supp , pp. 247-249.

Smith, S.N., Armstrong, Richard A., Springate, J. and Barker, G (1985). Infection and colonization of trout eggs by Saprolegniaceae. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 85 (4), pp. 719-764.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1985). Field experiments on competition between three foliose lichens using the de Wit experimental design. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 25 (4), pp. 369-374.

Smith, S.N., Armstrong, Richard A. and Fowler, M.W. (1985). Breakdown of plant cell biomass by filamentous fungi. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 7 (2), pp. 61-65.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1984). Growth of experimentally reconstructed thalli of the lichen Parmelia conspersa. New Phytologist, 98 (3), pp. 497-502.

Smith, S.N., Armstrong, Richard A. and Rimmer, J.J. (1984). Influence of environmental factors on zoospores of Saprolegnia diclina. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 82 (3), pp. 413-421.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1984). The influence of bird droppings and uric acid on the radial growth of five species of saxicolous lichens. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 24 (1), pp. 95-99.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1983). Growth curve of the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. New Phytologist, 94 (4), pp. 619-622.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1982). Competition between three saxicolous species of Parmelia (lichens). New Phytologist, 90 (1), pp. 67-72.

Wade, K.M., Armstrong, Richard A. and Woodell, S.R.J. (1981). Experimental studies on the distribution of the sexes of Mercurialis perennis L. New Phytologist, 87 (2), pp. 431-438.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1981). Field experiments on the dispersal, establishment and colonization of lichens on a slate rock surface. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 21 (1), pp. 115-120.

Anderson, J.P.E., Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, S.N. (1981). Methods to evaluate pesticide damage to the biomass of the soil microflora. Soil biology and biochemistry, 13 (2), pp. 149-153.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1979). Growth and regeneration of lichen thalli with the central portions artificially removed. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 19 (3), pp. 175-178.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1978). The colonization of a slate rock surface by a lichen. New Phytologist, 81 (1), pp. 85-88.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1977). The response of lichen growth to additions of distilled water, rainwater and water from a rock surface. New Phytologist, 79 (2), pp. 373-376.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1977). The reponse of lichen growth to transplantation to rock surfaces of different aspect. New Phytologist, 78 (2), pp. 473-478.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1976). The influence of the frequency of wetting and drying on the radial growth of three saxicolous lichens in the field. New Phytologist, 77 (3), pp. 719-724.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1975). The influence of aspect on the pattern of saesonal growth in the lichen Parmelia glabratula ssp. fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby) Laund. New Phytologist, 75 (2), pp. 245-251.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1974). Growth phases in the life of a lichen thallus. New Phytologist, 73 (5), pp. 913-918.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1974). The descriptive ecology of saxicolous lichens in an area of South Merionethshire, Wales. Journal of Ecology, 62 (1), pp. 33-45.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1973). Seasonal growth and growth rate-colony size relationships in six species of saxicolous lichens. New Phytologist, 72 (5), pp. 1023-1030.

Book Section

Armstrong, Richard A. (2015). Lichen growth and lichenometry. IN: Recent advances in lichenology. Upreti, Dalip Kumar; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Shukla, Vertika and Bajpal, Rajesh (eds) New Delhi (IN): Springer.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2009). Relationship between the microcirculation and the pathological changes in the spradic and variant forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD). IN: Microcirculation: Function, Malfunction and Measurement. Thompson, Ralph (ed.) New York (US): Nova science.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2009). A quantitative study of the pathological changes in the cortical white matter in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). IN: Handbook on White Matter: Structure, Function and Changes. Westland, Timothy B. and Calton, Robert N. (eds) Neuroanatomy Research at the Leading Edge . Nova science.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2008). Spatial correlations between beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits and blood vessels in early-onset Alzheimer's disease. IN: Alzheimer's Disease in the Middle-Aged. Jeong, Hyun-Sil (ed.) Nova science.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2007). Modelling the growth of prion protein aggregates in the brain in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. IN: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: New Research. Stones, Mic J. (ed.) New York (US): Nova Biomedical Press.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2007). Pathological changes in the primary visual cortex (Area V1) in Creutzfeldt-Jakob syndrome. IN: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: New Research. Stones, Mic J. (ed.) Nova Biomedical Press.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2007). Quantitative microscopic analysis of histological sections of brain tissue. IN: Modern Research and Educational Topics in Microsocopy. Méndez-Vilas, A. and Día, J. (eds) Microscopy Book Series . Badajoz (ES): Formatex.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2006). Modelling growth of prion protein aggregates in the brain in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. IN: Prions: New Research. Doupher, Bridgette V. (ed.) Nova science.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2004). Genetics and the eye. IN: Paediatric Optometry. Harvey, William H. and Gilmartin, Bernard (eds) Butterworth-Heinemann.

Armstrong, Richard A. (2004). Paediatric eye disorders:genetics. IN: Paediatric optometry. Harvey, William H. and Gilmartin, Bernard (eds) Butterworth-Heinemann.

Armstrong, Richard A., Janday, B., Slaven, A. and Harding, G.F. (1990). The use of flash and pattern evoked fields in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. IN: Advances in Biomagnetism: 7th International Conference Proceedings. Williamson, Samuel J. and Hoke, Manfried (eds) International Conference on Biomagnetism: Proceedings . Springer.

Armstrong, Richard A., Janday, B.S., Slaven, A. and Harding, G.F.A. (1990). The use of flash and pattern evoked fields in the diagnostic of Alzheimer's disease. IN: Advances in biomagnetism. Williamson, Samual J. and Hoke, Manfried (eds) New York (US): Plenum press.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1988). Substrate colonization, growth and competition. IN: Handbook of Lichenology. Galun, Margalith (ed.) CRC Press.

Anderson, J.M., Hamon, C.G.B., Armstrong, Richard A. and Blair, J.A. (1986). Tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism in normal brain, senile dementia of the Alzheimer type and Down's syndrome. IN: Chemistry and Biology of Pteridines. Cooper, B.A. and Whitehead, V.M. (eds) Berlin (DE): Walter De Gruyter.

Armstrong, Richard A. (1975). Studies on the growth rates of lichens. IN: Lichenology: Progress and Problems. Brown, D.H.; Hawksworth, D.L. and Bailey, R.H. (eds) Systematics Association Special Volume . London: Academic Press.

Conference or Workshop Item

Wevill, M., Hanratty, M. and Armstrong, Richard A. (2005). Predicting changes in measured introcular pressure with non-contact tonometry after LASIK. IN: European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. 2005-02-04 - 2005-02-06. (Unpublished)

Armstrong, Richard A. (2003). Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and the eye. IN: British Congress of Optometry and Vision Science. 2003-12-18.

Hazel, Charlotte A., Armstrong, Richard A., Latham, K. and Benson, Mark T. (1998). The correlation between tests of visual function and perceived visual ability in central field loss patients. IN: Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology. 1998-05-10 - 1998-05-15. (Submitted)

Armstrong, Richard A., Cairns, Nigel J., Patel, R. and Lantos, Peter L. (1994). Relationships between beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits and blood vessels in familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease. IN: 91st Meeting of British Neuropathological Society. 1996-01-11 - 1996-01-12.

Winsper, S.J., Armstrong, Richard A., Pall, H., Fuchs, D. and Blair, J.A. (1994). Serum neopterin levels and gallium transferrin binding in Parkinson's disease. IN: Brain Research Association Conference. 1994-04-11 - 1994-04-14.

Syed, A.B., Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, Christopher U.M. (1994). The incidence of corpora amylacea (CA) in the optic nerve of patients with Alzheimer's disease. IN: Brain Research Association Conference. 1994-04-11 - 1994-04-14. (Unpublished)

Bedford, J.L., Degg, C. and Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). Distributed source analysis of the pattern onset visual evoked magnetic response. IN: International Conference on Biomagnetism. 1993-01-01 - 1993-01-01. (Unpublished)

Degg, C., Slaven, A., Bedford, J. and Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). Hemispherical differences in the pattern onset visual evoked magnetic response. IN: International Conference on Biomagnetism. 1993-01-01 - 1993-01-01.

Slaven, A. and Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). Influence of blur on the visual evoked magnetic response to a pattern reversal stimulus. IN: Meeting of the Society for Experimental Optometry. 1993-07-26 - 1993-07-27. (Submitted)

Slaven, A., Degg, C. and Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). Influence of check and field size on the visual evoked magnetic response to a pattern shift stimulus. IN: Meeting of the Society for Experimental Optometry. 1993-07-26 - 1993-07-27. (Submitted)

Edwards, P., Cattell, R.J., Blair, J.A. and Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). Pattern visual evoked potentials in man and tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism. IN: 12th International Winter Workshop on Biochemical and Clinical Aspects of Pteridines. 1993-02-01. (Unpublished)

Cattell, R.J., Prasher, Vee, Armstrong, Richard A. and Blair, J.A. (1993). Tetrahydrobiopterin in Down's syndrome. IN: 12th International Winter Workshop on Biochemical and Clinical Aspects of Pteridines. 1993-02-01. (Unpublished)

Hodgkins, Paul S., Blair, J.A. and Armstrong, Richard A. (1993). The case for aluminium as the neurotoxin in sporadic Alzheimer's disease. IN: 12th International Winter Workshop on Biochemical and Clinical Aspects of Pteridines. 1993-02-01. (Unpublished)

Armstrong, Richard A., Myers, D. and Smith, C.U.M. (1993). The density of mature beta/A4 deposits is enhanced in Alzheimer's disease cases with pronounced congophilic angiopathy. IN: Brain Research Association Conference. 1993-04-01. (Unpublished)

Syed, Anila B., Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, Christopher U.M. (1992). Large diameter optic nerve axon fibres in Alzheimer's disease. IN: Meeting of the Society for Experimental Optometry. 1992-07-01. (Unpublished)

Armstrong, Richard A., Myers, D. and Smith, C.U.M. (1992). Principal components analysis of Alzheimer's disease based on neuropathological data: a study of 79 patients. IN: 9th International Meeting of the Brain Research Association. 1992-01-01 - 1992-01-01.

Degg, C. and Armstrong, Richard A. (1992). Topography of the visual evoked magnetic response and hemispherical specialization. IN: Meeting of the Society for Experimental Optometry. 1992-07-01. (Submitted)

Harding, G.F., Armstrong, Richard A. and Janday, B.S. (1992). Visual evoked electrical and magnetic response to half-field stimulation using pattern reversal stimulation. IN: Meeting of the Society for Experimental Optometry. 1992-07-01.

Armstrong, Richard A., Anderson, J., Cowburn, Jim D., Cox, Juliette and Blair, J.A. (1992). The influence of aluminium, administered in the diet and in drinking water, on biopterin metabolism. IN: 11th Winter Workshop on Pteridines. 1992-02-15 - 1992-02-22. (Unpublished)

Armstrong, Richard A., Myers, D. and Smith, C.U.M. (1991). Distribution of A4 protein and neurofibrillary change in the hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease. IN: 8th International Meeting of the Brain Research Association. 1992-01-01 - 1992-01-01.

Armstrong, Richard A., Degg, C. and Slaven, A. (1991). Latency and variability of the visual evoked magnetic response: a comparison of two single channel magnetometers. IN: 8th International Biomagnetism Conference. 1991-08-19 - 1991-08-24. (Unpublished)

Armstrong, Richard A., Slaven, A. and Harding, G.F. (1991). Normative data for two visually evoked magnetic components. IN: 8th International Biomagnetism Conference. 1991-08-19 - 1991-08-24. (Unpublished)

Harding, G.F., Armstrong, Richard A. and Janday, B. (1991). Topographic study of the visual evoked magnetic response. IN: 8th International Biomagnetism Conference. 1991-08-19 - 1991-08-24. (Unpublished)

Slaven, A., Degg, C. and Armstrong, Richard A. (1991). Topography of visual evoked magnetic responses to pattern shift, pattern onset and flash stimuli. IN: Meeting of the Society for Experimental Optometry. 1991-07-01.

Degg, C., Armstrong, Richard A., Slaven, A. and Harding, G.F. (1991). The visual evoked magnetic response to a pattern onset stimulus. IN: 8th International Biomagnetism Conference. 1991-08-19 - 1991-08-24. (Unpublished)

Myers, D., Armstrong, Richard A. and Smith, C.U.M. (1990). Neurohistological consequences of a long-term diet enriched in Aluminium and reduced inCa2+ and Mg2+. IN: 7th International Meeting of the Brain Research Association. 1990-01-01 - 1990-01-01.

Armstrong, Richard A., Slaven, A., Furlong, Paul L., Janday, B. and Harding, G.F.A. (1990). Normative MEG data to flash and pattern reversal stimuli. IN: Meeting of the EEG Society. 1989-06-21. (Submitted)

Slaven, A. and Armstrong, Richard A. (1990). The influence of age on the pattern and flash visual evoked field. IN: Society of Experimental Optometry. 1990-01-01 - 1990-01-01. (Submitted)

Armstrong, Richard A. (1976). Studies on the growth rates of lichens. IN: Systematics Association and British Lichen Society Conference: Lichenology, Progress and Problems. 1974-04-01.

This list was generated on Tue Sep 25 01:07:35 2018 BST.