Validations of an alpha version of the E3 Forensic Speech Science System (E3FS3) core software tools


This paper reports on validations of an alpha version of the E3 Forensic Speech Science System (E3FS3) core software tools. This is an open-code human-supervised-automatic forensic-voice-comparison system based on x-vectors extracted using a type of Deep Neural Network (DNN) known as a Residual Network (ResNet). A benchmark validation was conducted using training and test data (forensic_eval_01) that have previously been used to assess the performance of multiple other forensic-voice-comparison systems. Performance equalled that of the best-performing system with previously published results for the forensic_eval_01 test set. The system was then validated using two different populations (male speakers of Australian English and female speakers of Australian English) under conditions reflecting those of a particular case to which it was to be applied. The conditions included three different sets of codecs applied to the questioned-speaker recordings (two mismatched with the set of codecs applied to the known-speaker recordings), and multiple different durations of questioned-speaker recordings. Validations were conducted and reported in accordance with the “Consensus on validation of forensic voice comparison”.

Publication DOI:
Divisions: College of Business and Social Sciences > Aston Institute for Forensic Linguistics
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences
Additional Information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license 4.0 Funding: This research was supported by Research England’s Expanding Excellence in England (E3) Fund as part of funding for the Aston Institute for Forensic Linguistics 2019–2022. Collection of the forensic_eval_01 data and the AusEng 500+ data was supported by the Australian Research Council, Australian Federal Police, New South Wales Police, Queensland Police, National Institute of Forensic Science, Australasian Speech Science and Technology Association, and the Guardia Civil through Linkage Project LP100200142.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Forensic voice comparison,Likelihood ratio,Validation,x-vector,Pathology and Forensic Medicine,Law
Publication ISSN: 2589-871X
Last Modified: 20 May 2024 07:38
Date Deposited: 15 Mar 2022 14:08
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: https://linking ... 589871X22000080 (Publisher URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2022-03-07
Accepted Date: 2022-02-28
Authors: Weber, Philip (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-3121-9625)
Enzinger, Ewald
Labrador, Beltrán
Lozano-díez, Alicia
Ramos, Daniel
González-rodríguez, Joaquín
Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart (ORCID Profile 0000-0001-8608-8207)



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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