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**122**.

## Article

Saad, David; Rocchi, Jacopo and Yeung, Chi Ho
(2017).
Self-sustained clusters as drivers of computational hardness in p-spin models.
*Physical Review B*, 96
(2),

Rocchi, Jacopo; Tsui, Enoch Yan Lok and Saad, David
(2017).
Emerging interdependence between stock values during financial crashes.
*PLoS ONE*, 12
(5),

Li, Bo and Saad, David
(2017).
Chimera-like states in structured heterogeneous networks.
*Chaos*, 27
(4),

Lokhov, Andrey Y. and Saad, David
(2016).
Optimal deployment of resources for maximizing impact in spreading processes.
*Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences*, Submit
,

Mozeika, Alexander and Saad, David
(2015).
On reliable computation by noisy random Boolean formulas.
*IEEE Transactions on Information Theory*, 61
(1),
pp. 637-644.

Saad, David; Yeung, Chi Ho; Rodolakis, Georgios; Syrivelis, Dimitris; Koutsopoulos, Iordanis; Tassiulas, Leandros; Urbanke, Rüdiger; Giaccone, Paolo and Leonardi, Emilio
(2014).
Physics-inspired methods for networking and communications.
*IEEE Communications Magazine*, 52
(11),
pp. 144-151.

Mahmoudi, Hamed and Saad, David
(2014).
Generalized mean field approximation for parallel dynamics of the Ising model.
*Journal of Statistical Mechanics*, 2014
(7),

C. Alamino, Roberto; P. Neirotti, Juan and Saad, David
(2013).
Replication-based inference algorithms for hard computational problems.
*Physical Review E*, 88
(1),

Alamino, Roberto C.; Chattopadhyay, Amit and Saad, David
(2013).
Interacting nonequilibrium systems with two temperatures.
*Physical Review E*, 87
(5),

Yeung, Chi H. and Saad, David
(2013).
Networking - a statistical physics perspective.
*Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical*, 46
(10),

Saad, David and Mozeika, Alexander
(2013).
Emergence of equilibriumlike domains within nonequilibrium Ising spin systems.
*Physical Review E*, 87
(3),

Reichardt, Jörg; Alamino, Roberto C. and Saad, David
(2011).
The interplay between microscopic and mesoscopic structures in complex networks.
*PLoS ONE*, 6
(8),

Mozeika, Alexander; Saad, David and Raymond, Jack
(2010).
Noisy random Boolean formulae:a statistical physics perspective.
*Physical Review E*, 82
(041112),

Raymond, Jack and Saad, David
(2009).
Equilibrium properties of disordered spin models with two-scale interactions.
*Physical Review E*, 80
(3),
031138.

Mallard, Etienne and Saad, David
(2008).
Inference by belief propagation in composite systems.
*Physical Review E*, 78
(2),
021107.

Wong, K.Y. Michael and Saad, David
(2008).
Minimizing unsatisfaction in colourful neighbourhoods.
*Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General*, 41
(32),
p. 324023.

Yano, Toru; Tanaka, Toshiyuki and Saad, David
(2008).
A mean field theory of coded CDMA systems.
*Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General*, 41
(32),
p. 324022.

Neirotti, Juan P. and Saad, David
(2007).
Inference by replication in densely connected systems.
*Physical Review E*, 76
(4),
046121.

Raymond, Jack and Saad, David
(2007).
Sparsely spread CDMA - A statistical mechanics-based analysis.
*Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical*, 40
(41),
pp. 12315-12333.

Efraim, Hadar; Yacov, Nadav; Shental, Ori; Kanter, Ido and Saad, David
(2007).
Improved detection in CDMA for biased sources.
*Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical*, 40
(33),
pp. 9977-9985.

Bounkong, S.; van Mourik, Jort and Saad, David
(2006).
Coloring random graphs and maximizing local diversity.
*Physical Review E*, 74
(5),

Wong, K. Y. Michael and Saad, David
(2006).
Equilibration through local information exchange in networks.
*Physical Review E*, 74
(1),
pp. 1-4.

Neirotti, Juan P. and Saad, David
(2006).
Efficient Bayesian inference for learning in the Ising linear perceptron and signal detection in CDMA.
*Physica A*, 365
(1),
pp. 203-210.

Kabashima, Yoshiyuki and Saad, David
(2004).
Statistical mechanics of low-density parity-check codes.
*Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General*, 37
(6),
R1-R43.

Bounkong, Stephane; Toch, Boremi; Saad, David and Lowe, David
(2003).
ICA for watermarking digital images.
*Journal of Machine Learning Research*, 4
(7-8),
pp. 1471-1498.

Skantzos, Nikos; Saad, David and Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
(2003).
Analysis of common attacks in public-key cryptosystems based on low-density parity-check codes.
*Physical Review E*, 68
(056125),
056125/1-056125/11.

Skantzos, Nikos; van Mourik, Jort; Saad, David and Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
(2003).
Average and reliability error exponents in low-density parity-check codes.
*Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General*, 36
(43),
pp. 11131-11141.

Nakamura, Kazutaka; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Morelos-Zaragoza, R. and Saad, David
(2003).
Statistical mechanics of broadcast channels using low-density parity-check codes.
*Physical Review E*, 67
(036703),
pp. 1-9.

Skantzos, Nikos S.; van Mourik, Jort and Saad, David
(2003).
Magnetization enumerator for real-valued symmetric channels in Gallager error-correcting codes.
*Physical Review E*, 67
(3),

van Mourik, Jort and Saad, David
(2002).
Random graph coloring:Statistical physics approach.
*Physical Review E*, 66
(5),
pp. 1-15.

van Mourik, Jort; Saad, David and Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
(2002).
Critical noise levels for low-density parity check decoding.
*Physical Review E*, 66
(2),

Xiong, Yuan-Sheng and Saad, David
(2001).
Noise, regularizers, and unrealizable scenarios in online learning from restricted training sets.
*Physical Review E*, 64
(1),
pp. 1-18.

Coolen, Anthony C.C. and Saad, David
(2000).
Dynamics of learning with restricted training sets.
*Physical Review E*, 62
(4),
pp. 5444-5487.

Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Murayama, Tatsuto and Saad, David
(2000).
Typical performance of gallager-type error-correcting codes.
*Physical Review Letters*, 84
(6),
pp. 1355-1358.

Vicente, Renato; Saad, David and Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
(1999).
Finite connectivity systems as error-correcting codes.
*Physical Review E*, 60
(5),
pp. 5352-5366.

Scarpetta, Silvia and Saad, David
(1999).
On-line learning of unrealizable tasks.
*Physical Review E*, 60
(5),
pp. 5902-5911.

Kanter, Ido and Saad, David
(1999).
Error-correcting codes that nearly saturate Shannon's bound.
*Physical Review Letters*, 83
(13),
pp. 2660-2663.

Kabashima, Yoshiyuki and Saad, David
(1999).
Statistical mechanics of error-correcting codes.
*Europhysics Letters*, 45
(1),
pp. 97-103.

Kabashima, Yoshiyuki and Saad, David
(1998).
Belief propagation vs. TAP for decoding corrupted messages.
*Europhysics Letters*, 44
(5),
pp. 668-674.

West, Ansgar H.L. and Saad, David
(1998).
The role of biases in on-line learning of two-layer networks.
*Physical Review E*, 57
(3),
pp. 3265-3291.

Rattray, Magnus and Saad, David
(1997).
Globally optimal on-line learning rules for multi-layer neural networks.
*Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General*, 30
(22),
L771-L776.

Saad, David and Rattray, Magnus
(1997).
Globally optimal parameters for on-line learning in multilayer neural networks.
*Physical Review Letters*, 79
(13),
pp. 2578-2581.

West, Ansgar H.L. and Saad, David
(1997).
On-line learning with adaptive back-propagation in two-layer networks.
*Physical Review E*, 56
(3),
pp. 3426-3445.

West, Ansgar H. L.; Saad, David and Nabney, Ian T.
(1997).
The learning dynamics of a universal approximator.
*Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems*, 9
,
pp. 288-294.

Saad, David and Solla, Sara A.
(1996).
Dynamics of on-line gradient descent learning for multilayer neural networks.
*Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems*, 8
,
pp. 302-308.

Saad, David and Solla, Sara A.
(1996).
Learning with noise and regularizers in multilayer neural networks.
*Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems*, 9
,
pp. 260-266.

Saad, David and Li, Bo
Chimera state in structured heterogeneous networks.
*Chaos*, Submit
,

Li, Bin; Saad, David; Wong, K.Y. Michael; Chan, Amos H.M.; So, Tsz Yan and Heimonen, Hrmanni
Commodity prices rise sharply at turning points.
*Physical Review E*, Submit
,

Yeung, Chi and Saad, David
Competition for shortest paths on sparse graphs.
*Physical Review Letters*, 108
(20),

Raymond, Jack and Saad, David
Composite CDMA—a statistical mechanics analysis.
*Journal of Statistical Mechanics*, 2009
(5),

Alamino, Roberto C.; Neirotti, Juan P. and Saad, David
Compression by replication.
*Physical Review E*, 89
(3),

Mozeika, Alexander; Saad, David and Raymond, Jack
Computing with noise: phase transitions in Boolean formulas.
*Physical Review Letters*, 103
(24),
p. 248701.

Wong, K.Y. Michael; Saad, David and Yeung, Chi Ho
Distributed optimization in transportation and logistics networks.
*IEICE Transactions on Communications*, E99-B
(11),
pp. 2237-2246.

Mozeika, Alexander and Saad, David
Dynamics of Boolean networks: an exact solution.
*Physical Review Letters*, 106
(21),
p. 214101.

Freeman, Jason and Saad, David
Dynamics of on-line learning in radial basis function networks.
*Physical Review E*, 56
(1),
pp. 907-918.

Vicente, Renato; Saad, David and Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
Error-correcting code on a cactus:A solvable model.
*Europhysics Letters*, 51
(6),
pp. 698-704.

Migliorini, Gabriele and Saad, David
Finite-connectivity spin-glass phase diagrams and low-density parity check codes.
*Physical Review E*, 73
(2),

Kanter, Ido and Saad, David
Finite-size effects and error-free communication in Gaussian channels.
*Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General*, 33
(8),
pp. 1675-1681.

Barber, David; Saad, David and Sollich, Peter
Finite-size effects in on-line learning of multilayer neural networks.
*Europhysics Letters*, 34
(2),
pp. 151-156.

Yeung, Chi H.; Saad, David and Wong, K.Y. Michael
From the physics of interacting polymers to optimizing routes on the London Underground.
*Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences*, 110
(34),
pp. 13717-13722.

Saad, David
General gaussian priors for improved generalisation.
*Neural Networks*, 9
(6),
pp. 937-945.

Saad, David and Rattray, Magnus
Globally optimal learning rates in multilayer neural networks.
*Philosophical Magazine Part B*, 77
(5),
pp. 1523-1530.

Rattray, Magnus and Saad, David
Globally optimal on-line learning rules.
*Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems*, 10
,
pp. 322-328.

Neirotti, Juan P. and Saad, David
Improved message passing for inference in densely connected systems.
*Europhysics Letters*, 71
(5),
pp. 866-872.

Wong, K.Y. Michael and Saad, David
Inference and optimization of real edges on sparse graphs:A statistical physics perspective.
*Physical Review E*, 76
(1),
011115.

Saad, David and Rattray, Magnus
Learning with regularizers in multilayer neural networks.
*Physical Review E*, 57
(2),
pp. 2170-2176.

Mozeika, Alexander; Saad, David and Raymond, Jack
On the robustness of random Boolean formulae.
*Journal of Physics*, 233
(1),

Freeman, Jason and Saad, David
On-line learning in radial basis functions networks.
*Neural Computation*, 9
(7),
pp. 1601-1622.

Harrison, Elizabeth; Saad, David and Wong, K.Y. Michael
Optimal load shedding in electricity grids with renewable sources via message passing.
*Energy Procedia*, 107
,
pp. 101-108.

Mozeika, Alexander and Saad, David
Phase transitions and memory effects in the dynamics of Boolean networks.
*Philosophical Magazine*, 92
(1-3),
pp. 210-229.

Alamino, Roberto C. and Saad, David
Properties of sparse random matrices over finite fields.
*Journal of Statistical Mechanics*, 2009
(4),
P04017.

Saad, David; Skantzos, Nikos S. and Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
Security and reliability of LPDC based public-key cryptosystems.
*Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement*, 157
,
pp. 229-236.

Yeung, Chi H. and Saad, David
Self-sustained clusters and ergodicity breaking in spin models.
*Physical Review E*, 88
(3),

Alamino, Roberto C. and Saad, David
Statistical mechanics analysis of LDPC coding in MIMO Gaussian channels.
*Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical*, 40
(41),
pp. 12259-12279.

Nakamura, Kazutaka; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki and Saad, David
Statistical mechanics of low-density parity check error-correcting codes over Galois fields.
*Europhysics Letters*, 56
(4),
pp. 610-616.

Vicente, Renato; Saad, David and Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
Statistical physics of irregular low-density parity-check codes.
*Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General*, 33
(37),
pp. 6527-6542.

West, Ansgar H. L. and Saad, David
Threshold-induced phase transitions in perceptrons.
*Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General*, 30
(10),
pp. 3471-3496.

Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Sazuka, Naoya; Nakamura, Kazutaka and Saad, David
Tighter decoding reliability bound for Gallager's error-correcting code.
*Physical Review E*, 64
(4),
pp. 1-4.

Alamino, Roberto C. and Saad, David
Typical behavior of relays in communication channels.
*Physical Review E*, 76
(6),
pp. 1-8.

Alamino, Roberto C. and Saad, David
Typical kernel size and number of sparse random matrices over Galois fields: a statistical physics approach.
*Physical Review E*, 77
(6),
pp. 1-12.

Tanaka, Toshiyuki and Saad, David
Typical performance of regular low-density parity-check codes over general symmetric channels.
*Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General*, 36
(43),
pp. 11143-11157.

## Book Section

Alamino, Roberto C. and Saad, David
(2008).
*Typical performance of generalised vector channels.*
IN: Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks, WiOpt 2008.
IEEE.

Saad, David
(2003).
*The theory of on-line learning: a statistical physics approach.*
IN: Exploratory Data Analysis in Empirical Research: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Gesellschaft für Klassifikation e.V., University of Munich, March 14-16, 2001.
Schwaiger, Manfred and Opit, Otto (eds)
Studies in Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organization
.
Springer.

Vicente, Renato; Saad, David and Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
(2002).
*Low density parity check codes: a statistical physics perspective.*
IN: Advances in electronics and electron physics.
Hawkes, Peter W. (ed.)
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, 125
.
Elsevier.

van Mourik, Jort; Saad, David and Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
(2002).
*Magnetization enumerator for LDPC codes - a statistical physics approach.*
IN: Information Theory, 2002. Proceedings. 2002 IEEE International Symposium on.
IEEE.

van Mourik, Jort; Saad, David and Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
(2001).
*Weight vs magnetization enumerator for Gallager codes.*
IN: Cryptography and coding: Prooceeding of the8th IMA International Conference.
Honary, Bahram (ed.)
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
.
Berlin, D: Springer.

Vicente, Renato; Saad, David and Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
(2001).
*Error-correcting codes on a Bethe-like lattice.*
IN: Advances in neural information processing systems.
Leen, Todd K.; Tresp, Volker and Dietterich, Thomas G. (eds)
MIT.

Kabashima, Yoshiyuki and Saad, David
(1999).
*Simple Gallager codes for BSC.*
IN: Proceedings of the international workshop on soft computing in industry '99.
IEEE.

Rattray, Magnus and Saad, David
(1999).
*Incorporating curvature information into on-line learning.*
IN: On-line learning in neural networks.
Saad, David (ed.)
Publications of the Newton Institute
.
Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Saad, David and Solla, Sara A.
(1997).
*On-line learning in multilayer neural networks.*
IN: Proceedings of the first international conference on mathematics of neural networks : models, algorithms and applications: models, algorithms and applications.
Oxford: Kluwer.

West, Ansgar H L and Saad, David
*Adaptive back-propagation in on-line learning of multilayer networks.*
IN: Proceedings of the neural information processing systems.
Touretzky, David S; Mozer, Michael C and Hasselmo, Michael E. (eds)
Boston: MIT.

West, Ansgar H L and Saad, David
*Capacity of the upstart algorithm.*
IN: Mathematics of Neural Networks: Models, Algorithms and Applications.
Ellacott, Stephen W.; Mason, John C. and Anderson, Iain J. (eds)
Oxford: Kluwer.

Bounkong, Stephane; Saad, David and Lowe, David
*Independent component analysis for domain independent watermarking.*
IN: Artificial Neural Networks — ICANN 2002.
Dorronso, Jose R. (ed.)
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2415
.
Berlin: Springer.

Harrison, Elizabeth; Saad, David and Wong, K.Y. Michael
*Message passing for distributed optimisation of power allocation with renewable resources.*
IN: The proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Green Building and Smart Grid (IGBSG).
IEEE.

Mahmoudi, Hamed; Rodolakis, Georgios; Georgiadis, Leonidas and Saad, David
*Message-passing algorithms for optimal utilization of cognitive radio networks.*
IN: 2013 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops, ICC 2013.
IEEE.

Wong, K.Y. Michael; Yeung, C.H. and Saad, David
*Message-passing for inference and optimization of real variables on sparse graphs.*
IN: Neural information processing.
King, Irwin; Wang, Jun; Chan, Lai-Wan and Wang, DeLiang (eds)
Lecture notes in computer science
.
Berlin (DE): Springer.

Scarpetta, Silvia; Rattray, Magnus and Saad, David
*Natural gradient matrix momentum.*
IN: Ninth International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, ICANN 99.
Conference Publication, 1
.
Edinburgh UK: IEEE.

Wong, K.Y. Michael; Saad, David and Yeung, C.H.
*Network optimisation - A statistical physics perspective.*
IN: Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks, WiOpt 2008.
IEEE.

Bounkong, Stéphane; Toch, Borémi and Saad, David
*Optimal embedding for watermarking in discrete data spaces.*
IN: Information hiding.
Barni, Mauro; Herrera-Joancomartí, Jordi; Katzenbeisser, Stefan and Pérez-González, Fernando (eds)
Lecture notes in computer science
.
Berlin (DE): Springer.

Saad, David; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki and Murayama, Tatsuto
*Public key cryptography and error correcting codes as Ising models.*
IN: Disordered and complex systems.
P. Sollich, L.P. Hughston and Streater, R.F. (eds)
New york: American Institute of Physics.

Saad, David; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Murayama, Tatsuto and Vicente, Renato
*Statistical physics of low density parity check error correcting codes.*
IN: Cryptography and Coding.
Honary, B. (ed.)
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2260
.
Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer.

Kabashima, Yoshiyuki and Saad, David
*The TAP approach to intensive and extensive connectivity systems.*
IN: Advanced mean field methods: Theory and practice.
Opper, Manfred and Saad, David (eds)
Neural Information Processing
.
Cambridge, US: MIT.

Saad, David; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki and Vicente, Renato
*TAP for parity check error correcting codes.*
IN: Advanced mean field methods: Theory and practice.
Opper, Manfred and Saad, David (eds)
Neural Information Processing
.
MIT.

Rattray, Magnus and Saad, David
*Transients and asymptotics of natural gradient learning.*
IN: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks.
Niklasson, L.; Boden, M. and Ziemke, T. (eds)
Springer.

Toch, Boremi; Lowe, David and Saad, David
*Watermarking of audio signals using independent component analysis.*
IN: Proceedings of Third International Conference on Web Delivering of Music, 2003.
IEEE.

Kabashima, Yoshiyuki and Saad, David
*The belief in TAP.*
IN: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 11.
Kearns, Michael J.; Solla, Sara A. and Cohn, David (eds)
Proceeding of the 1998 Conference, 11
.
Cambridge MA: MIT.

Rattray, Magnus and Saad, David
*The dynamics of matrix momentum.*
IN: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks.
Niklasson, Lars F.; Boden, Mikael B. and Ziemke, Tom (eds)
Springer.

Tanaka, Toshiyuki and Saad, David
*A statistical-mechanical analysis of coded CDMA with regular LDPC codes.*
IN: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, 2003.
IEEE.

## Monograph

Tanaka, Toshiyuki and Saad, David
(2002).
*Typical performance of low-density parity-check codes over general symmetric channels.*
Working Paper.
Aston University.

van Mourik, Jort; Saad, David and Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
(2002).
*Critical noise levels for LDPC decoding.*
Working Paper.
Aston University.

Saad, David
(1999).
*Final report on EPSRC research grant GR/L19232.*
Project Report.
Aston University, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

Skantzos, Nikos S.; van Mourik, Jort; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki and Saad, David
*Average error exponent in Gallager low-density parity-check codes.*
Working Paper.
Aston University, Birmingham, UK.

Wong, K. Y. Michael; Yeung, C. H. and Saad, David
*Distributed algorithms for global optimization on sparse networks of arbitrary bandwidths.*
Working Paper.
Aston University, Birmingham.

Saad, David
*Final Report on EPSRC Research Grant GR/L52093.*
Project Report.
Aston University, Birmingham, UK.

Saad, David
*Final Report on EPSRC Research Grant GR/N00562.*
Project Report.
Aston University.

## Conference or Workshop Item

Wong, K. Y. Michael; Saad, David and Gao, Zhuo
(2005).
Resource allocation in sparse graphs.
IN: *European Conference on Complex Systems, 2005*. 2005-01-01 - 2005-01-01.

Neirotti, Juan. P. and Saad, David
(2005).
Bayesian inference in densely connected networks applied to CDMA.
IN: *European Conference on Complex Systems 2005*. 2005-11-14 - 2005-11-18.

Bounkong, Stéphane; Saad, David and Lowe, David
(2003).
Quantisation effects and watermarking capacity.
IN: *Seventh International Symposium on Communications Theory and Applications*. 2003-07-01 - 2003-07-01.

Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Sazuka, Naoya; Nakamura, Kazutaka and Saad, David
Evaluating zero error noise thresholds by replica method for Gallager code ensembles.
IN: *ISIT 2002*. 2002-01-01 - 2002-01-01.

Bounkong, Stephane; Saad, David and Lowe, David
ICA based steganography.
IN: *Second IMA International Conference on Mathematics in Communications*. 2002-01-01 - 2002-01-01.

Wong, K. Y. Michael; Saad, David and Gao, Zhuo
Message passing for task redistribution on sparse graphs.
IN: *Neural Information Processing Systems 18*. 2006-10-23 - 2006-10-23.

Bounkong, Stephane; Toch, Boremi; Saad, David and Lowe, David
Structured codebooks for SCS watermarking.
IN: *Signal Processing, Pattern Recognition, and Applications (SPPRA 2003)*. 2003-07-01 - 2003-07-01.

**Thu Sep 21 01:02:57 2017 BST**.