Synthesis of Carbon Onion and Its Application as a Porous Carrier for Amorphous Drug Delivery


Given the great potential of porous carrier-based drug delivery for stabilising the amorphous form of drugs and enhancing dissolution profiles, this work is focussed on the synthesis and application of carbon onion or onion-like carbon (OLC) as a porous carrier for oral amorphous drug delivery, using paracetamol (PA) and ibuprofen (IBU) as model drugs. Annealing of nanodiamonds at 1100 °C produced OLC with a diamond core that exhibited low cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells. Solution adsorption followed by centrifugation was used for drug loading and results indicated that the initial concentration of drug in the loading solution needs to be kept below 11.5% PA and 20.7% IBU to achieve complete amorphous loading. Also, no chemical interactions between the drug and OLC could be detected, indicating the safety of loading into OLC without changing the chemical nature of the drug. Drug release was complete in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and was faster compared to the pure crystalline drug, indicating the potential of OLC as an amorphous drug carrier.

Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences > Aston Pharmacy School
College of Health & Life Sciences > Chronic and Communicable Conditions
College of Health & Life Sciences
Additional Information: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Last Modified: 29 Nov 2023 12:45
Date Deposited: 20 Apr 2020 08:46
Full Text Link: 10.3390/cryst10040281
Related URLs: https://www.mdp ... 3-4352/10/4/281 (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2020-04-07
Accepted Date: 2020-04-03
Authors: Miriyala, Nikhila
Kirby, Daniel J.
Cumont, Aude
Zhang, Ruoying
Shi, Baogui
Ouyang, Defang
Ye, Haitao



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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