Estimation of transportation battery second life for use in electricity grid systems


This paper presents research from part of a larger project focusing on the potential development of commercial opportunities for the reuse of batteries on the electricity grid system, subsequent to their primary use in low and ultra-low carbon vehicles, and investigating the life cycle issues surrounding the batteries. The work has three main areas; examination of electric vehicle fleet data in detail to investigate usage in first life. Batteries that have passed through a battery recycler at the end of their first life have been tested within the laboratory to confirm the general assumption that remaining capacity of 80% after use in transportation is a reasonable assumption as a basis for second-life applications. The third aspect of the paper is an investigation of the equivalent usage for three different second-life applications based on connection to the electricity grid. Additionally, the paper estimates the time to cell failure of the batteries within their second-life application to estimate lifespan for use within commercial investigations.

Publication DOI:
Divisions: College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > Power Electronics, Machines and Power System (PEMPS)
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > School of Infrastructure and Sustainable Engineering > Engineering Systems and Supply Chain Management
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > Sustainable environment research group
Additional Information: © 2014 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
Uncontrolled Keywords: batteries,electric vehicles (EVs),energy storage,frequency response,smart grids,Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Last Modified: 27 Jun 2024 08:26
Date Deposited: 18 Feb 2015 16:40
Full Text Link: http://ieeexplo ... rnumber=6762912
Related URLs: http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2014-07
Published Online Date: 2014-03-11
Authors: Strickland, Dani (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-2979-4479)
Chittock, Laurence
Stone, David A.
Foster, Martin P.
Price, Brian (ORCID Profile 0000-0003-4860-0198)



Version: Accepted Version

Export / Share Citation


Additional statistics for this record