Investigation of anaerobic digested pyrolysis oil and waste derived biodiesel blends as sustainable fuel for marine engine application


In anaerobic digestion (AD) plants around 40% of the feed waste is utilised for biogas generation while the remainder is used as a fertiliser that is rich in oil that could be further utilised through pyrolysis. Dry AD waste, subjected to intermediate pyrolysis, generated a digested pyrolysis oil (DPO) of high viscosity (473 mm2/s) and low energy content (26 MJ/kg). To improve its fuel characteristics, we blended DPO with either used cooking oils (high in unsaturated fatty acids) or lamb fat (high in saturated fatty acids) using solvents of differing polarity including alcohols varying in chain length and hence aqueous miscibility from C1(methanol) to C5 (pentanol) and diethylether (DEE, a non-polar solvent). Five blends were prepared, typically consisting of 10–20% DPO, 20% solvent (alcohol or DEE) and 60–70% cooking oil or lamb fat. Physical properties of DPO blends e.g., viscosity, density, heating value, total acid number and flash point were found to be lower than neat DPO but increased about 25–40% over a storage period of 8 months. The blends were more stable than neat biodiesel as assessed by FT-IR spectroscopy. The elemental analysis (C, H, N, S and O) showed that atomic ratio of DPO blends; H:C, H:O, H:N and C:N were found to be lower than biodiesel and DPO fuels, respectively. Overall, the properties of DPO blends met the Marine Fuel Standard (Marine ISO 8217) and hence could be considered as a suitable replacement for bunker oil to protect marine environments following further testing and scale up studies.

Publication DOI:
Divisions: College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > School of Engineering and Technology > Mechanical, Biomedical & Design
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > Aston Institute of Materials Research (AIMR)
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > School of Infrastructure and Sustainable Engineering > Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > Energy and Bioproducts Research Institute (EBRI)
Funding Information: The study was supported by the UKIERI project (Grant Number: DST-UKIERI 18-19-04 ): Waste to Energy - Low Temperature Combustion of Sustainable Green Fuels.
Additional Information: Copyright © 2023, Elsevier. This accepted manuscript version is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Uncontrolled Keywords: Ageing,Animal fat biodiesel,Characterisation,Digested,Pyrolysis oil,Waste cooking biodiesel,Energy Engineering and Power Technology,Chemical Engineering(all),Fuel Technology,Organic Chemistry
Publication ISSN: 1873-7153
Last Modified: 14 Jun 2024 07:31
Date Deposited: 03 Oct 2023 07:57
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Related URLs: https://www.sci ... 5498?via%3Dihub (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2024-02-01
Published Online Date: 2023-10-01
Accepted Date: 2023-09-25
Authors: Sharma, Vikas
Hossain, Abul Kalam (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-8713-8058)
Griffiths, Gareth (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-7507-6945)
C. Manayil, Jinesh (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-9864-3332)
Ravikrishnan, Vinu
Duraisamy, Ganesh



Version: Accepted Version

Access Restriction: Restricted to Repository staff only until 1 October 2024.

License: Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives

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