Tobacco Smoking and Associated Factors among People Living with HIV in Uganda


Introduction The prevalence of smoking among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Uganda is high. Aims and Methods We assessed the smoking patterns, behaviors, and associated factors among PLWH in Uganda through a cross-sectional survey. Descriptive statistics were used to describe smoking patterns and behaviors. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with current smoking status. Results We recruited 777 participants between October and November 2019: 387 (49.8%) current smokers and 390 (50.2%) nonsmokers. 60.9% were males, and the mean age was 40.5 (SD 10.7) years. In multivariate logistic regression, the following increased the odds of being a current smoker: being male (odds ratio [OR] 6.60 [95% confidence interval, CI = 4.34–10.04]), having at least two smokers among five closest friends (OR 3.97 [95% CI = 2.08–7.59]), living in smoking-permitted households (OR 5.83 [95% CI = 3.32–10.23]), alcohol use (OR 3.96 [95% CI = 2.34–6.71]), a higher perceived stress score (OR 2.23 [95% CI = 1.50–3.34]), and higher health-related quality of life (OR 5.25 [95% CI = 1.18–23.35]). Among smokers, the mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score was 3.0 (SD 1.9), and 52.5% were making plans to quit. Self-efficacy to resist smoking and knowledge of the impact of smoking on PLWH’s health were low. Conclusions Being male, having at least two smokers among five closest friends, living in smoking-permitted households, alcohol use, higher perceived stress scores, and higher health-related quality of life were associated with being a current smoker. Smokers had low to moderate nicotine dependence, high willingness to quit, and low self-efficacy. Implications Future behavioral smoking cessation interventions for PLWH should address co-consumption with alcohol and comorbid mental health conditions that are common among PLWH such as stress. In addition, they should take into account the lack of knowledge among this population of the impact of smoking on their health, and low self-efficacy. Given the relatively low levels of nicotine dependency and high levels of willingness to quit in our sample, smoking cessation interventions, if offered, are likely to support this population in achieving long-term smoking abstinence.

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Divisions: College of Business and Social Sciences > School of Social Sciences & Humanities > Sociology and Policy
College of Business and Social Sciences > School of Social Sciences & Humanities
College of Business and Social Sciences > School of Social Sciences & Humanities > Centre for Health and Society
Additional Information: Copyright © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Publication ISSN: 1469-994X
Last Modified: 06 Jun 2024 07:30
Date Deposited: 25 Jul 2023 13:38
Full Text Link: http://www.scop ... tnerID=MN8TOARS
Related URLs: https://academi ... /7/1208/6029083 (Publisher URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2020-12-09
Accepted Date: 2020-12-07
Authors: Mdege, N.D.
Makumbi, F.E.
Ssenyonga, R.
Thirlway, F. (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-8882-544X)
Matovu, J.K.B.
Ratschen, E.
Siddiqi, K.
Nyamurungi Namusisi, K.



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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