Sub-states in transition: changing patterns of EU paradiplomacy in Scotland and Wales, 1992–2021


This article sheds new light on the dynamics of Scottish and Welsh relations with the European Union (EU). We analyse the development of Scotland and Wales’s ‘paradiplomacy’ over a 30-year period (1992–2021), offering the first comprehensive analysis of the EU-focused activities of sub-states transitioning out of the EU. We identify the significance of the interplay between a territory’s formal constitutional position and differences in party politics across levels of government in shaping paradiplomacy. Increasing tensions between the UK and devolved governments regarding the UK’s EU withdrawal have reinforced conflict dynamics, including in the context of growing protodiplomacy from the Scottish Nationalist Party (SNP) government.

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Divisions: College of Business and Social Sciences > School of Social Sciences & Humanities > Politics, History and International Relations
College of Business and Social Sciences > School of Social Sciences & Humanities
College of Business and Social Sciences > School of Social Sciences & Humanities > Aston Centre for Europe
Additional Information: Copyright © 2023 Regional Studies Association. This is an Accepted Manuscript version of the following article, accepted for publication in Territory, Politics and Governance on 15 May 2022. This version is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Funders: The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Coppieters Foundation [grant numberEP-FINS-2020-17].
Uncontrolled Keywords: Brexit,Scotland,Wales,paradiplomacy,protodiplomacy,secessionism,Geography, Planning and Development,Political Science and International Relations
Publication ISSN: 2162-268X
Last Modified: 20 Jun 2024 07:30
Date Deposited: 30 Jun 2023 15:24
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Related URLs: https://www.tan ... 71.2023.2203176 (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2023-05-15
Published Online Date: 2023-05-15
Accepted Date: 2023-05-04
Authors: Minto, Rachel
Rowe, Carolyn (ORCID Profile 0000-0001-8598-769X)
Royles, Elin



Version: Accepted Version

Access Restriction: Restricted to Repository staff only until 15 November 2024.

License: Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial

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