IMI 2023 Digest


Myopia is a dynamic and rapidly moving field, with ongoing research providing a better understanding of the etiology leading to novel myopia control strategies. In 2019, the International Myopia Institute (IMI) assembled and published a series of white papers across relevant topics and updated the evidence with a digest in 2021. Here, we summarize findings across key topics from the previous 2 years. Studies in animal models have continued to explore how wavelength and intensity of light influence eye growth and have examined new pharmacologic agents and scleral cross-linking as potential strategies for slowing myopia. In children, the term premyopia is gaining interest with increased attention to early implementation of myopia control. Most studies use the IMI definitions of ≤-0.5 diopters (D) for myopia and ≤-6.0 D for high myopia, although categorization and definitions for structural consequences of high myopia remain an issue. Clinical trials have demonstrated that newer spectacle lens designs incorporating multiple segments, lenslets, or diffusion optics exhibit good efficacy. Clinical considerations and factors influencing efficacy for soft multifocal contact lenses and orthokeratology are discussed. Topical atropine remains the only widely accessible pharmacologic treatment. Rebound observed with higher concentration of atropine is not evident with lower concentrations or optical interventions. Overall, myopia control treatments show little adverse effect on visual function and appear generally safe, with longer wear times and combination therapies maximizing outcomes. An emerging category of light-based therapies for children requires comprehensive safety data to enable risk versus benefit analysis. Given the success of myopia control strategies, the ethics of including a control arm in clinical trials is heavily debated. IMI recommendations for clinical trial protocols are discussed.

Publication DOI:
Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Optometry > Optometry & Vision Science Research Group (OVSRG)
College of Health & Life Sciences
College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Optometry > Optometry
Funding Information: Supported by the International Myopia Institute. The publication and dissemination costs of the International Myopia Institute reports were supported by donations from the Brien Holden Vision Institute, Carl Zeiss Vision, CooperVi-sion, EssilorLuxottica,
Additional Information: Copyright © 2023 The Authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Uncontrolled Keywords: clinical management,definitions,ethical considerations,experimental models,interventions,myopia,Sensory Systems,Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience,Ophthalmology
Publication ISSN: 1552-5783
Last Modified: 18 Jul 2024 07:34
Date Deposited: 05 May 2023 11:33
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PURE Output Type: Special issue
Published Date: 2023-05-01
Accepted Date: 2023-02-08
Authors: Sankaridurg, Padmaja
Berntsen, David A
Bullimore, Mark A
Cho, Pauline
Flitcroft, Ian
Gawne, Timothy J
Gifford, Kate L
Jong, Monica
Kang, Pauline
Ostrin, Lisa A
Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto
Wildsoet, Christine
Wolffsohn, James S (ORCID Profile 0000-0003-4673-8927)



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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