Visual illusions in young people reporting psychotic-like experiences


Background and objectives: A disruption in the co-ordination of bottom-up and top-down processing is thought to underlie anomalous perceptual experiences in psychosis. Visual illusions represent a valuable methodology in exploring this disruption. Here, we examined visual illusions in a group of young people having psychotic-like experiences. We also examined the relationship between illusion susceptibility and appraisal of psychotic-like experiences as well as depression, anxiety and stress levels. Method: 25 young people reporting psychotic-like experiences and 53 healthy participants performed an adjustment task that measured susceptibility to a battery of 13 visual illusions. Levels of depression, anxiety and stress were quantified in both groups. The clinical group also completed measures examining frequency, appraisals and emotional responses to psychotic-like experiences. Results: A general increase of illusion susceptibility was found in the clinical group compared to the control group. However, when depression, anxiety and stress levels were controlled for, this difference disappeared. Stress turned out to be the best predictor of illusion susceptibility in the clinical group, whereas anomalous experiences, depression and anxiety were unrelated to overall illusion strength. Limitations: This study is limited to young participants reporting significant mental health difficulties and psychotic-like experiences. Findings should be replicated in an Ultra High Risk (prodromal) group. Conclusions: Increased levels of stress explained the enhanced vulnerability to illusions in the clinical group. This increased susceptibility suggests a perceptual style that relies too heavily on prior expectations at the expense of the true sensory evidence, potentially leading to an altered perceptual experience of the world.

Publication DOI:
Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences > Aston Institute of Health & Neurodevelopment (AIHN)
Additional Information: © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
Uncontrolled Keywords: Anomalous perceptual experiences,Illusion susceptibility,Negative emotions,Psychotic-like experiences,Experimental and Cognitive Psychology,Clinical Psychology,Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous),Psychiatry and Mental health
Publication ISSN: 1873-7943
Last Modified: 20 May 2024 07:42
Date Deposited: 24 Feb 2023 14:00
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: https://www.sci ... 00579162300006X (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2023-06
Published Online Date: 2023-02-04
Accepted Date: 2023-01-23
Authors: Sperandio, Irene
Chouinard, Philippe A.
Paice, Emily
Griffiths-King, Daniel (ORCID Profile 0000-0001-5797-9203)
Hodgekins, Joanne



Version: Accepted Version

Access Restriction: Restricted to Repository staff only until 4 August 2024.

License: Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives


Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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