Efficacy of the 4F Feedback Model: A Game-Based Assessment in University Education


Feedback is a critical aspect of optimised learning design, but there are few, if any, feedback models that map different types of feedback and how they may assist students to increase performance and enhance their learning experience. This research paper outlines a feedback model as an extension of the four-dimensional framework which includes a consideration of the type, the content, the format, and the frequency of feedback, as well as the agent which delivers it. This model is based upon an understanding of learning in the context of designing learning experiences and utilises a game-based model of learning to understand the importance of motivation and autonomy in learners to enhance and accelerate learning. The framework is developed and reflected upon by analysing two cases: a medical triage case in which the timing and frequency of feedback proved critical, and a business simulation which illuminated the need for a range of types of feedback and to be aware of the possibility of different agents (instructor peer and game) that can deliver feedback. The extended model may help game and learning designers alike to discern different types of feedback, both in games and more generally, in more explicit and nuanced ways.

Publication DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/info14020099
Divisions: College of Business and Social Sciences > Aston Business School > Operations & Information Management
College of Business and Social Sciences > Aston Business School > Cyber Security Innovation (CSI) Research Centre
Additional Information: Copyright © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Funding: This research is partly funded by: The UK Department of Trade and Industry Technology Program: The Serious Games-Engaging Training Solutions Project (SG-ETS), Partners included Birmingham, London, and Sheffield Universities and Trusim, VEGA Group, PLC, and also by the Strategic Research Council (SRC) (Finland).
Uncontrolled Keywords: 4F model,agents,feedback,feedback format,feedback frequency,games,learning design,Information Systems
Publication ISSN: 2078-2489
Last Modified: 18 Jun 2024 07:44
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2023 08:53
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: https://www.mdp ... 78-2489/14/2/99 (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2023-02-06
Accepted Date: 2023-01-29
Authors: Freitas, Sara de
Uren, Victoria (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-1303-5574)
Kiili, Kristian
Ninaus, Manuel
Petridis, Panagiotis (ORCID Profile 0000-0003-3593-8261)
Lameras, Petros
Dunwell, Ian
Arnab, Sylvester
Jarvis, Stephen
Star, Kam



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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