Physical activity, time spent outdoors, and near work in relation to myopia prevalence, incidence, and progression:An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses


Myopia has reached epidemic levels in recent years. Stopping the development and progression of myopia is critical, as high myopia is a major cause of blindness worldwide. This overview aims at finding the association of time spent outdoors (TSO), near work (NW), and physical activity (PA) with the incidence, prevalence, and progression of myopia in children. Literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ProQuest, and Web of Science databases. Systematic reviews (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) on the TSO, NW, and PA in relation to myopia were reviewed. Methodological nature of qualified studies were evaluated utilizing the Risk of Bias in Systematic Review tool. We identified four SRs out of which three had MA, which included 62 unique studies, involving >1,00,000 children. This overview found a protective trend toward TSO with a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 0.982 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.979-0.985, I 2 = 93.5%, P < 0.001) per extra hour of TSO every week. A pooled OR 1.14 (95% CI 1.08-1.20) suggested NW to be related to risk of myopia. However, studies associating myopia with NW activities are not necessarily a causality as the effect of myopia might force children to indoor confinement with more NW and less TSO. PA presented no effect on myopia. Though the strength of evidence is less because of high heterogeneity and lack of clinical trials with clear definition, increased TSO and reduced NW are protective against myopia development among nonmyopes.

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Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Optometry > Optometry
College of Health & Life Sciences
Additional Information: Publisher Copyright: © 2022 Indian Journal of Ophthalmology Published by Wolters Kluwer-Medknow. This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‑NonCommercial‑ShareAlike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non‑commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms
Uncontrolled Keywords: Indoor activity,Myopia,Near work,Physical activity,Time spent outdoor,Ophthalmology
Publication ISSN: 1998-3689
Last Modified: 11 Jul 2024 07:17
Date Deposited: 13 Feb 2023 11:24
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Related URLs: http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
https://journal ... and_near.8.aspx (Publisher URL)
PURE Output Type: Review article
Published Date: 2022-03
Published Online Date: 2022-02-25
Accepted Date: 2021-09-21
Authors: Karthikeyan, Siddharth K.
Ashwini, D. L.
Priyanka, M.
Nayak, Anush
Biswas, Sayantan (ORCID Profile 0000-0001-6011-0365)


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