Building Code Compliance for Off-Site Construction


There are increasing concerns over building code, regulation compliance, and quality assurance issues in adopting off-site construction techniques in the construction industry related to meeting client expectations and regulatory requirements. Performance-based building regulations often allow for space for innovation but not a safe space for those who intend to introduce new construction techniques not prescribed in building regulations. Through a series of surveys conducted in Sweden, Switzerland, the UK, China, Singapore, and Australia, this study identified approaches and practices used in these countries that overcome compliance challenges when off-site construction techniques are used. The findings showed that manufacturer self-certification is the predominant approach for meeting code compliance requirements. A fit-for-purpose regulatory compliance system also warrants fair allocation of risks and liabilities to anyone involved in the supply chain. However, a healthy and functional regulatory system for off-site compliance requires third-party certification for products and factories and traceability. It is hoped that the lessons learned from this study can help policymakers introduce changes in product standards and legislation in order to improve the compliance and performance of off-site construction. This study concluded that a chain of custody approach is necessary in order to address quality concerns surrounding the adoption of prefabrication technology in countries that are increasingly exploring greater use of manufacturing in construction.

Publication DOI:
Divisions: College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > Aston Institute of Urban Technology and the Environment (ASTUTE)
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > School of Infrastructure and Sustainable Engineering > Civil Engineering
Additional Information: Copyright © ASCE. This material may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the American Society of Civil Engineers. This material may be found at
Uncontrolled Keywords: Building code,Compliance,International practice,Off-site construction,Off-site manufacturing,Prefabrication,Civil and Structural Engineering,Building and Construction,Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality,Engineering (miscellaneous),Law
Publication ISSN: 1943-4170
Last Modified: 23 Apr 2024 07:26
Date Deposited: 09 Jan 2023 15:15
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
https://ascelib ... JLADAH.LADR-856 (Publisher URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2023-05
Published Online Date: 2022-12-16
Accepted Date: 2022-09-07
Authors: Gharbia, Marwan
Chang-Richards, Alice
Xu, Xun
Höök, Matilda
Stehn, Lars
Jähne, René
Hall, Daniel
Park, Kenneth (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-8406-3847)
Hong, Jingke
Feng, Yingbin



Version: Accepted Version

License: ["licenses_description_other" not defined]

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