Multi-Hazard Risk Assessment of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal


Natural hazards are complex phenomena that can occur independently, simultaneously, or in a series as cascading events. For any particular region, numerous single hazard maps may not necessarily provide all information regarding impending hazards to the stakeholders for preparedness and planning. A multi-hazard map furnishes composite illustration of the natural hazards of varying magnitude, frequency, and spatial distribution. Thus, multi-hazard risk assessment is performed to depict the holistic natural hazards scenario of any particular region. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, multi-hazard risk assessments are rarely conducted in Nepal although multiple natural hazards strike the country almost every year. In this study, floods, landslides, earthquakes, and urban fire hazards are used to assess multi-hazard risk in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is then integrated with the Geographical Information System (GIS). First, flood, landslide, earthquake, and urban fire hazard assessments are performed individually and then superimposed to obtain multi-hazard risk. Multi-hazard risk assessment of Kathmandu Valley is performed by pair-wise comparison of the four natural hazards. The sum of observations concludes that densely populated areas, old settlements, and the central valley have high to very high level of multi-hazard risk.

Publication DOI:
Divisions: College of Business and Social Sciences > Aston Business School
College of Business and Social Sciences > School of Social Sciences & Humanities > Centre for Health and Society
Funding Information: Acknowledgments: The authors gratefully acknowledge generous philanthropic support from the Office of the Vice President of the Rabdan Academy, The United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Interdisciplinary Research Institute for Sustainability (IRIS), Kathmandu, N
Additional Information: Copyright © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Uncontrolled Keywords: Earthquake,Fire,Flood,Kathmandu Valley,Landslide,Multi-hazard,Risk assessment,Geography, Planning and Development,Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment,Environmental Science (miscellaneous),Energy Engineering and Power Technology,Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Publication ISSN: 2071-1050
Last Modified: 10 Apr 2024 07:40
Date Deposited: 25 Nov 2022 17:58
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: https://www.mdp ... 1050/13/10/5369 (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2021-05-11
Accepted Date: 2021-05-06
Authors: Khatakho, Rajesh
Gautam, Dipendra
Aryal, Komal Raj (ORCID Profile 0000-0001-9980-4516)
Pandey, Vishnu Prasad
Rupakhety, Rajesh
Lamichhane, Suraj
Liu, Yi Chung
Abdouli, Khameis
Talchabhadel, Rocky
Thapa, Bhesh Raj
Adhikari, Rabindra



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

| Preview

Export / Share Citation


Additional statistics for this record