Perceived impacts of climate variability and change:an exploration of farmers’ adaptation strategies in Zimbabwe’s intensive farming region


Climate variability and change (CVC) affect many economic sectors including agriculture. In order to alleviate the negative impact of CVC on food production, farmers must adopt a range of strategies. However, the strategies will be less effective if farmers’ perceptions on CVC are not considered. This study therefore, examined the perceptions of commercial farmers on CVC and their adaptation strategies to the perceived impacts. It used a cross-sectional survey involving 365 farmers in the intensive farming region of Zimbabwe. Results showed that farmers’ perceptions on increasing temperatures and decreasing rainfall amounts were cognate with climate data from the meteorological office. The findings also demonstrated that farmers were well aware of the CVC impacts on their livelihoods. These include increases in the frequency and severity of drought, and a shortening of the length of the rainy season. However, the most significant changes were observed among the natural and economic capitals including soil salinization, reduction in grazing pastures, fodder and crop yields in addition to increases in food prices. In response to the perceived impacts of local CVC, the farmers were adopting crop and land use management strategies that include planting rotation, cultivating short-season varieties and drought tolerant crops, crop and farm diversification, intensified irrigation, agroforestry, soil moisture conservation and mixed farming. The study concludes that farmers are active observers of local CVC. Therefore, they should modify their agricultural calendar and diversify their farming systems so as to better meet current and future risks from CVC.

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Divisions: College of Business and Social Sciences > Aston Business School
College of Business and Social Sciences
College of Business and Social Sciences > School of Social Sciences & Humanities > Centre for Health and Society
Additional Information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Uncontrolled Keywords: Adaptation,Climate change,Farmer,Perception,Strategies,Geography, Planning and Development
Publication ISSN: 0343-2521
Last Modified: 13 Jun 2024 07:24
Date Deposited: 25 Nov 2022 16:20
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Related URLs: http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2022-10
Published Online Date: 2021-06-25
Accepted Date: 2021-06-08
Authors: Mavhura, Emmanuel
Manyangadze, Tawanda
Aryal, Komal Raj (ORCID Profile 0000-0001-9980-4516)



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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