Synergistic Antimicrobial Metal Oxide-Doped Phosphate Glasses; a Potential Strategy to Reduce Antimicrobial Resistance and Host Cell Toxicity


The emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains bacteria and a decline in the discovery of new antibiotics has led to the idea of combining various antimicrobials to treat resistant strains and/or polymicrobial infections. Metal oxide-doped glasses have been extensively investigated for their antimicrobial potential; however to date, most experiments have focused on single metal species in isolation. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potential of sodium calcium phosphates (P2O5)50(Na2O)20(CaO)30–X(MO)X, where M is cobalt, copper, or zinc as single species. In addition, this work studied the effect of co-doping glasses containing two different metal ions (Co + Cu, Co + Zn, and Cu + Zn). The antimicrobial efficacy of all glasses was tested against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains, as well as a fungal strain (Candida albicans). Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations and time kill/synergy assays were used to assess the antimicrobial activity. An enhanced antimicrobial effect, at 5 mg/mL concentration, was exhibited by cobalt, copper, and zinc oxide glasses alone and in combinations. A synergistic antimicrobial effect was observed by Cu + Co and Cu + Zn against E. coli and Cu + Zn against S. aureus.

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Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Biosciences
College of Health & Life Sciences > Chronic and Communicable Conditions
College of Health & Life Sciences
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > Aston Institute of Materials Research (AIMR)
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences
Additional Information: © 2022 American Chemical Society. This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution license (
Uncontrolled Keywords: antimicrobial,antimicrobial resistance,bioactive glasses,synergism,Biomaterials,Biomedical Engineering
Publication ISSN: 2373-9878
Last Modified: 14 Jun 2024 07:24
Date Deposited: 20 Apr 2022 17:01
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: ... terials.1c00876 (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2022-03-14
Published Online Date: 2022-02-24
Accepted Date: 2022-02-07
Authors: Raja, Farah N. S.
Worthington, Tony (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-1906-3357)
de Souza, Lucas P. L. (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-0188-5168)
Hanaei, Shirin B.
Martin, Richard A. (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-6013-2334)



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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