Eliciting preferences for continuing medication among adult patients and parents of children with attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder


Background: Adherence to medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is less than optimal. Previous studies have primarily focused on qualitative assessment of factors that influence medication adherence. Objective: This study aimed to quantify the factors that influence patient and parent preferences for continuing ADHD medication. Method: A discrete-choice experiment was conducted to investigate preferences. Adults, and parents of children, with ADHD were presented with eight hypothetical choice tasks of three options (Medication A, Medication B, No Medication) described by six attributes related to medication outcomes. Preferences were estimated using a mixed multinomial logit model. Results: Overall, respondents' preferences (n = 216) for continuing medication were negative (mean [β] = −1.426, p <.001); however, a significant heterogeneity in preferences was observed amongst respondents (standard deviation = 0.805, p <.001). Improvements in education, aggressive behaviour, social behaviour and family functioning, and side effects and stigma, influenced respondents' decision to continue taking medication. The respondents were willing to continue medication if they experienced positive effects, but side effects (even moderate) were the strongest concern for not continuing medication. While side effects were the most important factor for both adult patients and parents of children with ADHD, improvement in education was relatively more important for adults and improvement in aggressive behaviour, social behaviour and family functioning was relatively more important for parents of children with ADHD. Parents were more likely to not continue a medication with severe side effects even at the highest level of improvement in education. Conclusions: Side effects are the most important factor that influenced preferences for continuing medication for both adults with ADHD, as well as parents of children with ADHD. While overall the respondents preferred not to take/give medication, discrete-choice experiment showed that the relative importance of factors that influenced continuation of medications was different for the two groups. Patient and Public Involvement: Adults, and parents of children, with ADHD participated in this study by completing the online questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on findings of research in the literature, as well as earlier focus groups conducted with adults, and parents of children, with ADHD. The face validity of the questionnaire was determined by asking parents of children, and adults, with ADHD (n = 3) to complete the survey and participate in a short discussion on their understanding of the questions and their recommendations on improving the clarity of the survey.

Publication DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/hex.13462
Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences > Aston Pharmacy School
Additional Information: © 2022 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Uncontrolled Keywords: ADHD,adults,discontinuation,implementation,medication,parents,preferences,Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Publication ISSN: 1369-7625
Last Modified: 08 Jul 2024 08:11
Date Deposited: 15 Mar 2022 14:07
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Related URLs: https://onlinel ... .1111/hex.13462 (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2022-06
Published Online Date: 2022-03-10
Accepted Date: 2022-02-17
Submitted Date: 2021-04-25
Authors: Khan, Muhammad Umair (ORCID Profile 0009-0005-1284-5929)
Balbontin, Camila
Bliemer, Michiel C. J.
Aslani, Parisa



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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