Systematic review of features for co‐simulating security incidents in Cyber‐Physical Systems


Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and Internet-of-Things (IoT) plus energy are the enabling technology of modern power systems also known as the Smart Grid (SG). A SG may consist of thousands of interconnected components communicating and exchanging data across layers that stretch beyond technical capabilities, for instance, markets and customer interactions. Cyber-physical security is a major source of concern due to the high reliance of the SG on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and their widespread use. Addressing security requires developing modeling and simulation tools that approximate and replicate adversarial behavior in the SG. These tools have in fact two simulators, one handling continuous power flows and another for capturing the discrete behavior when communicating across CPS or IoT components. The technique of composing two models of computation in a global simulation of these coupled systems is called co-simulation. Although there are many frameworks and tools for co-simulation, the set of features for modeling cyber-physical security incidents in the SG lacks thorough understanding. We present a systematic review of features and tools for co-simulating these concerns in CPS. We also highlight and discuss research gaps with respect to the most used tools in industry and academia and comment on their relevant features.

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Additional Information: © 2021 The Authors. Security and Privacy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Funding: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. Grant Number: EP/V012053/1
Last Modified: 19 Apr 2024 07:17
Date Deposited: 06 Jan 2022 12:47
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Related URLs: https://onlinel ... 0.1002/spy2.150 (Publisher URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2021-05-04
Published Online Date: 2021-02-20
Accepted Date: 2021-01-16
Authors: Czekster, Ricardo M. (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-6636-4398)
Morisset, Charles
Clark, John A.
Soudjani, Sadegh
Patsios, Charalampos
Davison, Peter



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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