Multi-Response Optimization of Tensile Creep Behavior of PLA 3D Printed Parts Using Categorical Response Surface Methodology


Three-dimensional printed plastic products developed through fused deposition modeling (FDM) endure long-term loading in most of the applications. The tensile creep behavior of such products is one of the imperative benchmarks to ensure dimensional stability under cyclic and dynamic loads. This research dealt with the optimization of the tensile creep behavior of 3D printed parts produced through fused deposition modeling (FDM) using polylactic acid (PLA) material. The geometry of creep test specimens follows the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D2990) standards. Three-dimensional printing is performed on an open-source MakerBot desktop 3D printer. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is employed to predict the creep rate and rupture time by undertaking the layer height, infill percentage, and infill pattern type (linear, hexagonal, and diamond) as input process parameters. A total of 39 experimental runs were planned by means of a categorical central composite design. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results revealed that the most influencing factors for creep rate were layer height, infill percentage, and infill patterns, whereas, for rupture time, infill pattern was found significant. The optimized levels obtained for both responses for hexagonal pattern were 0.1 mm layer height and 100% infill percentage. Some verification tests were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the adopted RSM technique. The implemented research is believed to be a comprehensive guide for the additive manufacturing users to determine the optimum process parameters of FDM which influence the product creep rate and rupture time.

Publication DOI:
Divisions: College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > School of Engineering and Technology > Mechanical, Biomedical & Design
Additional Information: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Publication ISSN: 2073-4360
Last Modified: 29 May 2024 07:21
Date Deposited: 30 Nov 2021 13:31
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: https://www.mdp ... 4360/12/12/2962 (Publisher URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2020-12-11
Accepted Date: 2020-12-08
Authors: Waseem, Muhammad
Salah, Bashir
Habib, Tufail
Saleem, Waqas
Abas, Muhammad
Khan, Razaullah
Ghani, Usman
Siddiqi, Muftooh Ur Rehman (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-7209-7863)



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

| Preview

Export / Share Citation


Additional statistics for this record