The association between overweight/obesity and double diabetes in adults with type 1 diabetes; a cross-sectional study


BACKGROUND: Double Diabetes (DD), type 1 diabetes (T1DM) + insulin resistance (IR), is associated with increased risk of micro/macro-vascular complications and mortality. Obesity can contribute to the development of DD. This study explored the prevalence of overweight/obesity and their association with DD in adults with T1DM. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of consecutive adults with T1DM attending diabetes clinics in a secondary care hospital (January-November 2019). Estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) was used as a marker of IR, and an eGDR < 8 was used to identify individuals with DD. RESULTS: One hundred seven adults with T1DM were included; female/male: 51/56; age [median (inter-quartile range): 30.0 (23-51) years]; BMI 25.4 (22.8-30.0) kg/m 2. Overweight/obesity prevalence was 57/107 (53.3 %) [overweight: 30/107 (28 %); obesity: 27/107 (25.2 %)]. Compared to those with normal BMI, individuals with T1DM and overweight/obesity had longer diabetes duration; higher total daily insulin dose; and higher DD prevalence: 48/57 (84.2 %) vs. 14/50 (28 %) (p < 0.01); with similar HbA1c. BMI correlated with total daily insulin dose (rho = 0.55; p < 0.01). Individuals with DD were older, had longer duration of diabetes, higher HbA1c, and more adverse lipid profile and microalbuminuria compared to those without DD. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight/obesity is very common in adults with T1DM, and is associated with double diabetes. BMI is positively associated with total insulin dose. Double diabetes is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk profile and is also common in lean individuals with T1DM. Further research is needed to examine the impact of overweight/obesity in people with T1DM and whether weight loss in this population can improve diabetes-related outcomes.

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Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences > Aston Medical School
Additional Information: © The Author(s). 2021 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Double diabetes,Insulin resistance,Obesity,Overweight,Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus,Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Publication ISSN: 1472-6823
Last Modified: 28 May 2024 17:49
Date Deposited: 27 Sep 2021 10:06
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Related URLs: https://bmcendo ... 902-021-00851-1 (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2021-09-16
Accepted Date: 2021-08-21
Authors: Cantley, Nathan Wp
Lonnen, Kathryn
Kyrou, Ioannis (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-6997-3439)
Tahrani, Abd A
Kahal, Hassan



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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