European Society of Cardiology Quality Indicators for the care and outcomes of cardiac pacing:developed by the Working Group for Cardiac Pacing Quality Indicators in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association of the European Society of Cardiology


Aims: To develop a suite of quality indicators (QIs) for the evaluation of the care and outcomes for adults undergoing cardiac pacing. Methods and results: Under the auspice of the Clinical Practice Guideline Quality Indicator Committee of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), the Working Group for cardiac pacing QIs was formed. The Group comprised Task Force members of the 2021 ESC Clinical Practice Guidelines on Cardiac Pacing and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy, members of the European Heart Rhythm Association, international cardiac device experts, and patient representatives. We followed the ESC methodology for QI development, which involved (i) the identification of the key domains of care by constructing a conceptual framework of the management of patients receiving cardiac pacing, (ii) the development of candidate QIs by conducting a systematic review of the literature, (iii) the selection of the final set of QIs using a modified-Delphi method, and (iv) the evaluation of the feasibility of the developed QIs. Four domains of care were identified: (i) structural framework, (ii) patient assessment, (iii) pacing strategy, and (iv) clinical outcomes. In total, seven main and four secondary QIs were selected across these domains and were embedded within the 2021 ESC Guidelines on Cardiac Pacing and Cardiac Resynchronization therapy. Conclusion: By way of a standardized process, 11 QIs for cardiac pacing were developed. These indicators may be used to quantify adherence to guideline-recommended clinical practice and have the potential to improve the care and outcomes of patients receiving cardiac pacemakers.

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Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences > Aston Medical School > Translational Medicine Research Group (TMRG)
College of Health & Life Sciences > Aston Medical School
Additional Information: Copyright: The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact
Uncontrolled Keywords: Cardiac pacemaker,Clinical practice guidelines,Quality indicators,Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine,Physiology (medical)
Publication ISSN: 1532-2092
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: https://academi ... euab193/6358481 (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2022-01-04
Published Online Date: 2021-08-29
Accepted Date: 2021-07-11
Authors: Aktaa, Suleman
Abdin, Amr
Arbelo, Elena
Burri, Haran
Vernooy, Kevin
Blomström-lundqvist, Carina
Boriani, Giuseppe
Defaye, Pascal
Deharo, Jean-claude
Drossart, Inga
Foldager, Dan
Gold, Michael R
Johansen, Jens Brock
Leyva-Leon, Francisco
Linde, Cecilia
Michowitz, Yoav
Kronborg, Mads Brix
Slotwiner, David
Steen, Torkel
Tolosana, José Maria
Tzeis, Stylianos
Varma, Niraj
Glikson, Michael
Nielsen, Jens Cosedis
Gale, Chris P


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