Experimental Investigation of Neat Biodiesels’ Saturation Level on Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a CI Engine


The fuel qualities of several biodiesels containing highly saturated, mono, and poly unsaturated fatty acids, as well as their combustion and exhaust emission characteristics, were studied. Six biodiesel samples were divided into two groups based on their fatty acid composition, including group 1 (coconut, castor, and jatropha) and group II (palm, karanja, and waste cooking oil biodiesel). All fuels (in both groups) were tested in a single-cylinder off-road diesel engine. Castor and karanja biodiesel, both rich in mono-unsaturation level, have a high viscosity of about 14.5 and 5.04 mm2/s, respectively. The coconut and palm biodiesels are rich in saturation level with cetane numbers of 62 and 60, respectively. In both groups, highly saturated and poly-unsaturated methyl esters presented better combustion efficiency and less formation of polluted emissions than mono-unsaturation. At full load, coconut and palm biodiesel displayed 38% and 10% advanced start of combustion, respectively, which reduced ignition delay by approximately 10% and 3%, respectively. Mono-unsaturated methyl esters exhibited a higher cylinder pressure and heat release rate, which results in higher NOx gas emissions. The group II biodiesels showed about 10–15% lower exhaust emissions owing to an optimum level of fatty acid composition. Our study concluded that highly saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid performed better than mono-unsaturated biodiesels for off-road engine application.

Publication DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165203
Divisions: College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > School of Engineering and Technology > Mechanical, Biomedical & Design
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > Aston Institute of Urban Technology and the Environment (ASTUTE)
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > Aston Institute of Materials Research (AIMR)
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > Sustainable environment research group
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences
Additional Information: Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/). Funding: The study was funded by the DST-UKIERI project (Grant Number: DST-UKIERI 18-19-04): Waste to Energy-Low Temperature Combustion of Sustainable Green Fuels.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Biodiesel saturation,Biofuels,Carbon bonding,Combustion,Emission,Engine,Performance,Renewable fuels,Waste,Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment,Fuel Technology,Energy Engineering and Power Technology,Energy (miscellaneous),Control and Optimization,Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Publication ISSN: 1996-1073
Last Modified: 14 May 2024 07:27
Date Deposited: 01 Sep 2021 14:08
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: https://www.mdp ... 1073/14/16/5203 (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2021-08-23
Accepted Date: 2021-08-17
Authors: Sharma, Vikas (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-0603-8208)
Hossain, A K (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-8713-8058)
Duraisamy, Ganesh



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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