Quantitative Assessment of Microbial Contamination and Patterns of Public Behaviour with Used Toothbrushes:Implications of Storage and Replacement


Introduction: Toothbrushes can readily become contaminated with microbes during use and storage. They present a potential hazard of cross-contamination and subsequent infection. Aims: To investigate the nature and level of microbial contamination of used toothbrushes and influence of participant lifestyle. Methods and Results: 103 used toothbrushes were donated, and microbial contents were determined by microbial culture and identification. 97% of toothbrushes revealed contamination. The microbial loads ranged from 0-1010 cfu/brush with median values of around 107, with Candida isolated in the highest levels. 90% of toothbrushes were stored in bathrooms presumably exposed to environmental contamination and 72% revealed the presence of enteric bacteria including Klebsiella, Serratia and Enterobacter. 50% of participants kept toothbrushes for >3 months and 40% retained toothbrushes for 4-6 months; microbial loads were fully established during the first three months of use and did not increase further with prolonged use. Only 57% of participants brushed their teeth twice a day and 41% brushed once a day. Conclusion: Used toothbrushes are heavily contaminated and the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms constitutes a potential health risk. Significance and Impact of Study: There is an under-recognised risk of cross-contamination/infection, especially when multiple users store toothbrushes in close contact. Guidance on toothbrush age, brushing frequency and storage is not being followed. Further education is required to improve public awareness.

Publication DOI: https://doi.org/10.31487/j.DOBCR.2021.02.08
Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Biosciences > Cell & Tissue Biomedical Research
College of Health & Life Sciences
Additional Information: © 2021 Amreen Bashir. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Microbial contamination,used toothbrushes,toothbrush storage,Enterobacteria,Pseudomonas,E. coli,environmental
Publication ISSN: 2613-4950
Last Modified: 28 Mar 2024 08:18
Date Deposited: 12 Aug 2021 14:17
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: https://www.sci ... OBCR-2021-2-108 (Publisher URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2021-06-16
Accepted Date: 2021-06-01
Authors: Bashir, Amreen (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-0428-0922)
Lambert, Peter (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-8243-2741)



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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