The effect of active smoking, passive smoking, and e-cigarettes on the tear film:An updated comprehensive review


Active tobacco smoking, passive smoking, and e-cigarette smoking have been associated with different systemic and ocular diseases. The precorneal tear film plays an important role in eye health and its analysis can provide useful information on ocular status. This review investigates the effects of different types of smoking on the precorneal tear film, by analyzing the peer-reviewed literature on this topic. Specifically, tear evaporation rate, stability, volume, ferning, osmolarity, and physical composition (lipids and proteins) of tear film are detailed. Most of the reported works show that cigarette smoking reduces tear film stability and quality by affecting its components. This review highlights that smoking severely affects the tear film, but a single test is not sufficient to determine these effects because smoking can impact different parts of the eye.

Publication DOI:
Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Optometry > Optometry
College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Optometry > Optometry & Vision Science Research Group (OVSRG)
College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Optometry > Vision, Hearing and Language
College of Health & Life Sciences
Additional Information: © 2021, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Uncontrolled Keywords: Tear film,Active smoking,e-cigarettes,Environmental tobacco smoke,Tear stability,Tear quality,Lipid layer,Sensory Systems,Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience,Ophthalmology
Publication ISSN: 1096-0007
Last Modified: 14 May 2024 07:26
Date Deposited: 05 Jul 2021 12:49
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: https://linking ... 014483521002578 (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Review article
Published Date: 2021-09-01
Published Online Date: 2021-07-02
Accepted Date: 2021-06-30
Authors: Miglio, Federica
Naroo, Shehzad (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-6373-7187)
Zeri, Fabrizio (ORCID Profile 0000-0003-0529-555X)
Tavazzi, Silvia
Ponzini, Erika

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