Demographic and lifestyle risk factors of dry eye disease subtypes:A cross-sectional study


Purpose: To evaluate demographic and lifestyle factors associated with aqueous deficient and evaporative dry eye disease. Methods: A total of 1125 general public visitors (707 females, mean ± SD age, 33 ± 21, range 5–90 years) at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition were recruited in a cross-sectional study. A demographic and lifestyle factor questionnaire was administered, and dry eye symptomology (DEQ-5 score), ocular surface characteristics (conjunctival hyperaemia, and infrared meibography), and tear film parameters (tear meniscus height, non-invasive breakup time, and lipid layer grade) were evaluated for the left eye of each participant within a single session. The diagnostic criteria for dry eye disease subtypes were adapted from the rapid non-invasive dry eye assessment algorithm. Results: Overall, 428 (38%) participants fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for dry eye disease, 161 (14%) with aqueous deficient dry eye disease, and 339 (30%) with evaporative dry eye disease. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that advancing age, female sex, reduced sleep duration, higher psychological stress, and poorer self-perceived health status were independently associated with aqueous deficient dry eye disease (all p < 0.05). Significant risk factors for evaporative dry eye disease included advancing age, East and South Asian ethnicity, contact lens wear, increased digital device screen exposure, higher psychological stress, and poorer self-perceived health status (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: Both subtypes of dry eye disease were associated with several unique and shared demographic and lifestyle factors. The findings of this study could inform future research design investigating the utility of targeted screening and risk factor modification for the prevention and management of dry eye disease.

Publication DOI:
Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Optometry > Optometry
College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Optometry > Optometry & Vision Science Research Group (OVSRG)
College of Health & Life Sciences
Additional Information: © 2021, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Funding Information: The Dry Eye Exhibit at the Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition was supported by the British Contact Lens Association, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council , Innovate UK Technology Strategy Board , Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society , EyeBag Company, Eyoto, Reckitt Benckiser, Santen , Shire , and Thea Pharmaceuticals. MV-R, FM, TI , DA and AR were funded by the EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 642760.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Dry eye,Epidemiology,Lacrimal gland,Meibomian gland,Ocular surface,Risk factor,Tear film,Ophthalmology
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Related URLs: http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
https://www.sci ... 0409?via%3Dihub (Publisher URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2021-07-01
Published Online Date: 2021-05-15
Accepted Date: 2021-05-03
Authors: Wolffsohn, James S. (ORCID Profile 0000-0003-4673-8927)
Wang, Michael T.M.
Vidal-Rohr, Maria
Menduni, Francesco
Dhallu, Sandeep
Ipek, Tugce
Acar, Duygu
Recchioni, Alberto
France, Alex
Kingsnorth, Alec
Craig, Jennifer P.



Version: Accepted Version

Access Restriction: Restricted to Repository staff only until 15 May 2022.

License: Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives

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