Impairment of manual but not saccadic response inhibition following acute alcohol intoxication.

Abstract

Background Alcohol impairs response inhibition; however, it remains contested whether such impairments affect a general inhibition system, or whether affected inhibition systems are embedded in, and specific to, each response modality. Further, alcohol-induced impairments have not been disambiguated between proactive and reactive inhibition mechanisms, and nor have the contributions of action-updating impairments to behavioural ‘inhibition’ deficits been investigated. Methods Forty Participants (25 female) completed both a manual and a saccadic stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) task before and after a 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol and, on a separate day, before and after a placebo. Blocks in which participants were required to ignore the signal to stop or make an additional ‘dual' response were included to obtain measures of proactive inhibition as well as updating of attention and action. Results Alcohol increased manual but not saccadic SSRT. Proactive inhibition was weakly reduced by alcohol, but increases in the reaction times used to baseline this contrast prevent clear conclusions regarding response caution. Finally, alcohol also increased secondary dual response times of the dual task uniformly as a function of the delay between tasks, indicating an effect of alcohol on action-updating or execution. Conclusions The modality-specific effects of alcohol favour the theory that response inhibition systems are embedded within response modalities, rather than there existing a general inhibition system. Concerning alcohol, saccadic control appears relatively more immune to disruption than manual control, even though alcohol affects saccadic latency and velocity. Within the manual domain, alcohol affects multiple types of action updating, not just inhibition.

Publication DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.08.022
Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences
College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Psychology
College of Health & Life Sciences > Applied Health Research Group
Additional Information: © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY/4.0/) Funding: The authors acknowledge funding from the School of Psychology at Cardiff University, Alcohol Research UK (RS 12/01; AC), the Economic and Social Research Council (ES/K002325/1; CC, CH and PS), European Research Council (Consolidator Grant 647893-CCT; CC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BB/K008277/1; CA and CC).
Publication ISSN: 0376-8716
Full Text Link: http://europepm ... ct/med/29054392
Related URLs: https://www.sci ... 4635?via%3Dihub (Publisher URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2017-12-01
Published Online Date: 2017-09-20
Accepted Date: 2017-08-22
Authors: Campbell, AE
Chambers, CD
Allen, CPG
Hedge, C (ORCID Profile 0000-0001-6145-3319)
Sumner, P

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