Waste Animal Bones as Catalysts for Biodiesel Production; A Mini Review


Slaughterhouse waste is considered to be an emerging issue because of its disposal cost. As an alternative, it would be a great prospect for the bioeconomy society to explore new usages of these leftover materials. As per food safety rules mentioned by EU legislation, all bone waste generated by slaughterhouses ought to be disposed of by rendering. The huge quantity of worldwide bone waste generation (130 billion kilograms per annum) is an environmental burden if not properly managed. The waste animal bones can be efficiently employed as a heterogeneous catalyst to produce biodiesel. This mini review summarized the recent literature reported for biodiesel generation using waste animal bones derived heterogeneous catalyst. It discusses the sources of bone waste, catalyst preparation methods, particularly calcination and its effects, and important characteristics of bones derived catalyst. It suggests that catalysts extracted from waste animal bones have suitable catalytic activity in transesterification of different oil sources to generate a good quality biodiesel.

Publication DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/catal11050630
Divisions: College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > School of Engineering and Technology > Mechanical, Biomedical & Design
College of Engineering & Physical Sciences
Additional Information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
Uncontrolled Keywords: Biodiesel,Calcination,Catalytic activity,Heterogeneous catalyst,Waste animal bones,Catalysis,Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
Publication ISSN: 2073-4344
Last Modified: 14 May 2024 07:24
Date Deposited: 18 May 2021 10:43
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: https://www.mdp ... 3-4344/11/5/630 (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Review article
Published Date: 2021-05-13
Accepted Date: 2021-05-10
Authors: Hussain, Fayaz
Alshahrani, Saad
Abbas, Muhammad Mujtaba
Khan, Haris Mahmood
Jamil, Asif
Yaqoob, Haseeb
Soudagar, Manzoore Elahi M.
Imran, Muhammad (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-3057-1301)
Ahmad, Mushtaq
Munir, Mamoona



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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