Update and guidance on management of myopia. European Society of Ophthalmology in cooperation with International Myopia Institute


The prevalence of myopia is increasing extensively worldwide. The number of people with myopia in 2020 is predicted to be 2.6 billion globally, which is expected to rise up to 4.9 billion by 2050, unless preventive actions and interventions are taken. The number of individuals with high myopia is also increasing substantially and pathological myopia is predicted to become the most common cause of irreversible vision impairment and blindness worldwide and also in Europe. These prevalence estimates indicate the importance of reducing the burden of myopia by means of myopia control interventions to prevent myopia onset and to slow down myopia progression. Due to the urgency of the situation, the European Society of Ophthalmology decided to publish this update of the current information and guidance on management of myopia. The pathogenesis and genetics of myopia are also summarized and epidemiology, risk factors, preventive and treatment options are discussed in details.

Publication DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1120672121998960
Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Optometry > Optometry
College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Optometry > Optometry & Vision Science Research Group (OVSRG)
College of Health & Life Sciences
Additional Information: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).
Uncontrolled Keywords: Myopia,atropine,blindness,myopia reduction interventions,orthokeratology,pathologic myopia,preventive medicine,time spent outdoors,Ophthalmology
Publication ISSN: 1724-6016
Last Modified: 14 May 2024 07:22
Date Deposited: 15 Mar 2021 09:53
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: https://journal ... 120672121998960 (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Review article
Published Date: 2021-05
Published Online Date: 2021-03-05
Accepted Date: 2021-02-04
Authors: Németh, János
Tapasztó, Beáta
Aclimandos, Wagih A
Kestelyn, Philippe
Jonas, Jost B
De Faber, Jan-Tjeerd H N
Januleviciene, Ingrida
Grzybowski, Andrzej
Nagy, Zoltán Zsolt
Pärssinen, Olavi
Guggenheim, Jeremy A
Allen, Peter M
Baraas, Rigmor C
Saunders, Kathryn J
Flitcroft, Daniel Ian
Gray, Lyle S
Polling, Jan Roelof
Haarman, Annechien EG
Tideman, J Willem L
Wolffsohn, James Stuart (ORCID Profile 0000-0003-4673-8927)
Wahl, Siegfried
Mulder, Jeroen A
Smirnova, Irina Yurievna
Formenti, Marino
Radhakrishnan, Hema
Resnikoff, Serge


Export / Share Citation


Additional statistics for this record