European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension versus the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the cut-off values for early hypertension: a microvascular perspective


The aim of this study was to investigate retinal and peripheral microvascular function in asymptomatic individuals that fall into different BP groups when using either the ESC/ESH or the ACC/AHA guidelines. Retinal and peripheral microvascular function was assessed in 358 participants by means of dynamic retinal vessel analysis and digital thermal monitoring, respectively. Blood pressure and lipid panel were also evaluated. Retinal vascular function measured in all groups belonging to the ACC/ASH classifications were within the normal values for age-matched normal population. Individuals classed as grade 1 hypertension according to the ESC/ESH guidelines, however, exhibited a significantly decreased artery baseline (p = 0.0004) and MC (p = 0.040), higher slope AD (p = 0.0018) and decreased vein MC (p = 0.0446) compared to age matched normal individuals. In addition, they also had significant lower artery baseline, artery BDF, MD and MC than individuals classed as stage 1 hypertension based on the ACC/ASH guidelines (p = 0.00022, p = 0.0179, p = 0.0409 and p = 0.0329 respectively). Peripheral vascular reactivity (aTR) was lower in ESC /ESH grade I compared to those graded ACC/ASH stage I hypertension (p = 0.0122). The conclusion of this study is that microvascular dysfunctions is present at multiple levels only in individuals with ESC/ESH grade 1 hypertension. This observation could be important when deciding personalised care in individuals with early hypertensive changes.

Publication DOI:
Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Optometry > Optometry
College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Optometry > Optometry & Vision Science Research Group (OVSRG)
College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Optometry > Vision, Hearing and Language
College of Health & Life Sciences
Additional Information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Uncontrolled Keywords: General
Publication ISSN: 2045-2322
Last Modified: 14 May 2024 07:21
Date Deposited: 12 Feb 2021 08:11
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: https://www.nat ... 598-021-83096-1 (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2021-02-10
Accepted Date: 2021-01-11
Submitted Date: 2020-05-14
Authors: Shokr, H.
Gherghel, D. (ORCID Profile 0000-0001-9439-5573)



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

| Preview

Export / Share Citation


Additional statistics for this record