A Hierarchical Multilevel Approach in Assessing Factors Explaining Country-Level Climate Change Vulnerability


Assessing vulnerability is key in the planning of climate change adaptation policies and, more importantly, in determining actions increasing resilience across different locations. This study presents the results of a hierarchical linear multilevel modeling approach that utilizes as dependent variable the Notre Dame Global Adaptation Initiative (ND-GAIN) Climate Change Vulnerability Index and explores the relative impact of a number of macro-level characteristics on vulnerability, including GDP, public debt, population, agricultural coverage and sociopolitical and institutional conditions. A 1995–2016 annual time series that yields a panel dataset of 192 countries is employed. Findings suggest that country-level climate change vulnerability is responding (strongly) to the majority of the explanatory variables considered. Findings also confirm that less-developed countries demonstrate increased vulnerability compared to the developed ones and those in transition stages. While these results indeed warrant further attention, they provide a background for a more nuanced understanding of aspects defining country-level patterns of climate vulnerability.

Publication DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114438
Divisions: College of Business and Social Sciences > Aston Business School > Operations & Information Management
Additional Information: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Uncontrolled Keywords: Climate change vulnerability,Country-level index,Hierarchical linear multilevel (HLM) model,Geography, Planning and Development,Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment,Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Last Modified: 14 May 2024 07:14
Date Deposited: 04 Jun 2020 11:53
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Related URLs: https://www.mdp ... 1050/12/11/4438 (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2020-05-29
Accepted Date: 2020-05-27
Authors: Halkos, George
Skouloudis, Antonis
Malesios, Chrisovalantis (ORCID Profile 0000-0003-0378-3939)
Jones, Nikoleta



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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