The Ice in Voices:Understanding negative content in auditory-verbal hallucinations


Negative voice-content is the best sole predictor of whether the hearer of an auditory-verbal hallucination will experience distress/impairment necessitating contact with mental health services. Yet, what causes negative voice-content and how interventions may reduce it remains poorly understood. This paper offers definitions of negative voice content and considers what may cause negative voice-content. We propose a framework in which adverse life-events may underpin much negative voice-content, a relation which may be mediated by me- chanisms including hypervigilance, reduced social rank, shame and self-blame, dissociation, and altered emo- tional processing. At a neurological level, we note how the involvement of the amygdala and right Broca's area could drive negative voice-content. We observe that negative interactions between hearers and their voices may further drive negative voice-content. Finally, we consider the role of culture in shaping negative voice-content. This framework is intended to deepen and extend cognitive models of voice-hearing and spur further devel- opment of psychological interventions for those distressed by such voices. We note that much of the relevant research in this area remains to be performed or replicated. We conclude that more attention needs to be paid to methods for reducing negative voice-content, and urge further research in this important area.

Publication DOI:
Divisions: ?? 53981500Jl ??
College of Business and Social Sciences > Aston Institute for Forensic Linguistics
College of Business and Social Sciences > School of Social Sciences & Humanities
Additional Information: © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
Uncontrolled Keywords: Abuse,Adverse life experiences,Attribution,Intention,Psychosis,Schizophrenia,Threat,Clinical Psychology,Psychiatry and Mental health
Publication ISSN: 1873-7811
Last Modified: 19 Feb 2024 08:29
Date Deposited: 21 Nov 2019 15:32
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: https://www.sci ... 0946?via%3Dihub (Publisher URL)
http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
PURE Output Type: Review article
Published Date: 2019-02-01
Published Online Date: 2018-11-14
Accepted Date: 2018-11-10
Authors: Laroi, Frank
Thomas, Neil
Aleman, Andre
Fernyhough, Charles
Wilkinson, Sam
Deamer, Felicity (ORCID Profile 0000-0001-6466-9211)
McCarthy-Jones, Simon



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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