The functional relationship between transglutaminase 2 and transforming growth factor β1 in the regulation of angiogenesis and endothelial-mesenchymal transition


The importance of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in angiogenesis has been highlighted in recent studies, but other roles of this multi-functional enzyme in endothelial cell (EC) function still remains to be fully elucidated. We previously showed that the extracellular TG2 is involved in maintaining tubule formation in ECs by a mechanism involving matrix-bound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling. Here, by using the ECs and fibroblast co-culture and ECs 3D culture models, we demonstrate a further role for TG2 in both endothelial tubule formation and in tubule loss, which involves its role in the regulation of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and Smad signalling. We demonstrate that inhibition of tubule formation by TG2 inhibitors can be restored by add-back of exogenous TGFβ1 at pg/ml levels and show that TG2 -/- mouse ECs are unable to form tubules in 3D culture and display negligible Smad signalling compared to wild-type cells. Loss of tubule formation in the TG2 -/- ECs can be reconstituted by transduction with TG2. We demonstrate that extracellular TG2 also has an important role in TGFβ1-induced transition of ECs into myofibroblast-like cells (endothelial-mesenchymal transition), resulting in loss of EC tubules and tubule formation. Our data also indicate that TG2 may have a role in regulating TGFβ signalling through entrapment of active TGFβ1 into the extracellular matrix. In conclusion, our work demonstrates that TG2 has multi-functional roles in ECs where its ability to fine-tune of TGFβ1 signalling means it can be involved in both endothelial tubule formation and tubule rarefaction.

Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Biosciences
College of Health & Life Sciences
College of Health & Life Sciences > Chronic and Communicable Conditions
College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Biosciences > Cellular and Molecular Biomedicine
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Publication ISSN: 2041-4889
Last Modified: 29 Nov 2023 12:19
Date Deposited: 19 Aug 2019 09:40
Full Text Link: 10.1038/cddis.2017.399
Related URLs: https://www.nat ... es/cddis2017399 (Publisher URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2017-09-07
Accepted Date: 2017-05-23
Authors: Wang, Zhuo
Perez, Mileidys
Lee, Eun-Seo
Kojima, Soichi
Griffin, Martin



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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