From Balancing to Bandwagoning: Evaluating the Impact of the Sanction Regime on North Korea–Africa Relationships


Purpose—The DPRK has maintained an extensive array of foreign relationships over the past decades, both for political and economic gains. This article evaluates the impact of the current sanction regime on the DPRK’s activities with African countries. Design/Methodology/Approach—The analysis is conducted by using a bespoke behavior framework based on Stephen Walt’s “balance of threat” theory. This framework develops the concepts of balancing, defensive bandwagoning, and opportunistic bandwagoning as potential behaviors of African states following the imposition of United Nations Security Council Resolutions to sanction North Korea from 2006 until 2017. Findings—Evidence suggests that some long- standing relationships based on military and economic cooperation have been severed in recent years; thus, it supports a general balancing behavior. Findings also suggest that a specific group of countries subscribe to new opportunistic and defensive bandwagoning by embarking on talks and partnerships in the fields of health and science, regardless of the sanction regime, signaling defiance against Western- led world order.

Divisions: College of Business and Social Sciences > School of Social Sciences & Humanities > Politics, History and International Relations
College of Business and Social Sciences > School of Social Sciences & Humanities > Aston Centre for Europe
Additional Information: This article was originally published in North Korean Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, Spring 2019 by McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.
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Related URLs: https://www.nor ... (Publisher URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2019-06-30
Accepted Date: 2019-03-01
Authors: Grzelczyk, Virginie M (ORCID Profile 0000-0001-9802-7161)



Version: Accepted Version

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