Chemically specific identification of carbon in XPS imaging using Multivariate Auger Feature Imaging (MAFI)


Until now, a difficult prospect in XPS imaging has been the identification of similar chemical states of carbon. With the advent of novel nano-carbons such as nanotubes and graphene, the ability to easily and unambiguously identify materials of varying sp2/sp3 nature in XPS spectra and images is becoming increasingly important. We present herein methods for the identification of such species in XPS images by shifting focus from the traditionally analysed C1s region to the X-ray induced carbon Auger feature. By extracting the D-Parameter from XPS data, we have generated what we refer to as "D-Parameter Images", that clearly identify regions of different carbon hybridisation in an image of a graphite flake mounted on carbon tape, and areas of reduced graphene oxide (GO) in a laser-scribed GO film. This method is then enhanced by multivariate analysis, a technique we call "Multivariate Auger Feature Imaging", where the distinction between varying sp2 carbon content on a surface is improved.

Publication DOI:
Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences
Additional Information: © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
Uncontrolled Keywords: Chemistry(all)
Publication ISSN: 1873-3891
Full Text Link:
Related URLs: http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
https://www.sci ... 4481?via%3Dihub (Publisher URL)
PURE Output Type: Article
Published Date: 2016-10-01
Published Online Date: 2016-05-30
Accepted Date: 2016-05-30
Authors: Barlow, Anders J.
Popescu, Sinziana (ORCID Profile 0000-0002-5441-1492)
Artyushkova, Kateryna
Scott, Oliver
Sano, Naoko
Hedley, John
Cumpson, Peter J.



Version: Published Version

License: Creative Commons Attribution

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