The Formation of Smoke in Flames


The setting-up and operation of a quadrupole mass spectrometer for studying the natural ionisation in flames is described, Results are presented for a simple oxygen / hydrogen flame to which two hydrocarbon fuels, ethylene and acetylene were added. The ethylene flame contained forty-two negative flame ion species, whereas the acetylene flame contained thirty-two. These ions are discussed in parallel, due consideration being given to the differences between the flames and to ions formed by the sampling process. In both flames many ions can be attributed to hydrated species of oxygenated parent ions, formed mainly on the sampling nozzle of the apparatus. Some of these hydrated species evidently help to stabilise the parent ion. Ring structures for some of these as a possible explanation of this stabilisation are envisaged. Ions containing C and H only are identified as acetylides and polyacetylides. This formation is favoured in the the acetylene flame because more reactions are thermodynamically possible for the formation of the precursor ions C-, CH-, C2- and C2H-.

Divisions: College of Engineering & Physical Sciences > School of Infrastructure and Sustainable Engineering > Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry
Additional Information: Copyright © Peter Alan Bott, 1980. Peter Alan Bott asserts his moral right to be identified as the author of this thesis. This copy of the thesis has been supplied on condition that anyone who consults it is understood to recognise that its copyright rests with its author and that no quotation from the thesis and no information derived from it may be published without appropriate permission or acknowledgement. If you have discovered material in Aston Publications Explorer which is unlawful e.g. breaches copyright, (either yours or that of a third party) or any other law, including but not limited to those relating to patent, trademark, confidentiality, data protection, obscenity, defamation, libel, then please read our Takedown Policy and contact the service immediately.
Institution: Aston University
Uncontrolled Keywords: Flames,Mass Spectometry,Negative Ions
Last Modified: 08 Dec 2023 08:10
Date Deposited: 11 Jan 2011 14:14
Completed Date: 1980-09
Authors: Bott, Peter Alan

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