Cellular signalling pathways involved in muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia


Cancer cachexia encompases severe weight loss, characterised by the debilitating atrophy of adipose and skeletal muscle mass. Skeletal muscle proteolysis in cancer cachexia is mediated by a sulphated glycoprotein with a relative molecular mass of 24kDa, termed Proteolysis-Inducing Factor (PIF). PIF induced a significant increase in protein degradation, peaking at 4.2nM PIF (p<0.001), ‘chymotrypsin-like’ activity of the proteasome (p<0.001) and increased expression of components of the ATP-ubiquitin dependent proteolytic pathway. This was attenuated in vitro by pre-incubation with the PKC inhibitor calphostin C (100µM) and NF-kB the inhibitors SN50 (18µM), curcumin (50µM) and resveratrol (30µM), 2 hours prior to the addition of PIF. In vivo studies found the IKK inhibitor resveratrol (1mg/kg) to be successful in attenuating protein degradation (p<0.001) and upregulation of ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis in MAC16 tumour bearing mice. C2C12 myoblasts transfected with mutant IkBα and PKCα inserts did not elicit a PIF-induced response, suggesting the importance of the transcription factor NF-kB and PKC  involvement in PIF signal transduction. 15(S)-HETE acts as an intracellular mediator of PIF and exerts an effect through the activation of PKC and subsequently IKK, which phosphorylates IkBα and allows NF-kB to migrate to the nucleus. This effect was negated with the PKC inhibitor calphostin C (300nM). A commercially produced PIF receptor antibody was raised in rabbits immunised with a peptide containing the partial N-terminal sequence of the PIF receptor. The PIF receptor antibody was successful in attenuating the PIF-induced increase in skeletal muscle catabolism and protein degradation in vitro at 10µg/ml (p<0.001) and 3.47mg/kg in vivo (p<0.001). The data suggest great potential in the development of this antibody as a therapy against cancer cachexia.

Divisions: College of Health & Life Sciences > School of Biosciences
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Institution: Aston University
Uncontrolled Keywords: cachexia,proteolysis-inducing factor,ATP-ubiquitin dependent proteolysis
Last Modified: 08 Dec 2023 08:35
Date Deposited: 21 Dec 2010 13:12
Completed Date: 2004-09
Authors: Wyke, Stacey M.


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