Encoding order and developmental dyslexia:a family of skills predicting different orthographic components

Romani, Cristina, Tsouknida, Effie and Olson, Andrew (2015). Encoding order and developmental dyslexia:a family of skills predicting different orthographic components. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68 (1), pp. 99-128.


We investigated order encoding in developmental dyslexia using a task that presented nonalphanumeric visual characters either simultaneously or sequentially—to tap spatial and temporal order encoding, respectively—and asked participants to reproduce their order. Dyslexic participants performed poorly in the sequential condition, but normally in the simultaneous condition, except for positions most susceptible to interference. These results are novel in demonstrating a selective difficulty with temporal order encoding in a dyslexic group. We also tested the associations between our order reconstruction tasks and: (a) lexical learning and phonological tasks; and (b) different reading and spelling tasks. Correlations were extensive when the whole group of participants was considered together. When dyslexics and controls were considered separately, different patterns of association emerged between orthographic tasks on the one side and tasks tapping order encoding, phonological processing, and written learning on the other. These results indicate that different skills support different aspects of orthographic processing and are impaired to different degrees in individuals with dyslexia. Therefore, developmental dyslexia is not caused by a single impairment, but by a family of deficits loosely related to difficulties with order. Understanding the contribution of these different deficits will be crucial to deepen our understanding of this disorder.

Publication DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2014.938666
Divisions: Life & Health Sciences > Psychology
Life & Health Sciences > Clinical and Systems Neuroscience
Life & Health Sciences
Life & Health Sciences > Vision, Hearing and Language
Additional Information: This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Quarterly journal of experimental psychology on 23/9/14, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/17470218.2014.938666
Uncontrolled Keywords: developmental dyslexia,lexical learning,sequential presentation,serial order,visual impairments,Physiology,Physiology (medical),Psychology(all),Experimental and Cognitive Psychology,Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
Full Text Link: http://www.tand ... 218.2014.938666
Related URLs: http://www.scop ... tnerID=8YFLogxK (Scopus URL)
Published Date: 2015
Authors: Romani, Cristina
Tsouknida, Effie
Olson, Andrew



Version: Accepted Version

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