Methylglyoxal, glyoxalses and cell proliferation

Hooper, Nigel I. (1987). Methylglyoxal, glyoxalses and cell proliferation. PHD thesis, Aston University.

Abstract

The metabolic function of the glyoxalase system was investigated in (a) the differentiation and proliferation of human tumour cells in vitro, (b) the cell-free assembly of microtubules and (c) in the red blood cells during hyperglycaemia associated with Diabetes Mellitus. Chemically-induced differentiation of human promyelocytic HL60 leukaemia cells to neutrophils, and K562 erythroleukaemia cells, was accompanied by a decrease and an increase in the activity of glyoxalase I, respectively. Growth-arrest of Burkitt's lymphoma Raji cells and GM892 lymphoblastoid cells was accompanied by an increase and a decrease in the activity of glyoxalase I respectively. However, differentiation and growth arrest generally proceeded with an increase in the activity of glyoxalase II. Glyoxalase I activity did not consistently correlate with cell differentiation or proliferation status; hence, it is unlikely that glyoxalase I activity is either an indicator or a regulator of cell differentiation or proliferation. Conversely, glyoxalase II activity consistently increased during cell differentiation and growth-arrest and may be both an indicator and regulator of cell differentiation or proliferation. This may be related to the control of cellular microtubule assembly. S-D-Lactoylglutathione potentiated the cell-free, GTP-promoted assembly of microtubules. The effect was dose-related and was inhibited by glyoxalase II. During assembly, S-D-lactoylglutathione was consumed. This suggests that the glyoxalase system, through the influence of S-D-lactoylglutathione, may regulate the assembly of microtubules in cellular systems The whole blood concentrations of methylglyoxal and S-D-lactoylglutathione were increased in Diabetes Mellitus. There was no significant difference between red blood cell glyoxalase activities in diabetics, compared to healthy controls. However, insulin-dependent diabetic patients with retinopathy had a significantly higher glyoxalase I activity and a lower glyoxalase II activity, than patients without retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy correlated with high glyoxalase I activity and low glyoxalase II activity and suggests the glyoxalase system may be involved in the development of diabetic complications.

Divisions: Life & Health Sciences
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Institution: Aston University
Uncontrolled Keywords: glyoxalses,s-d-lactoylglutathione,microtubules,differentiation,proliferation
Completed Date: 1987-10
Authors: Hooper, Nigel I.

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