Octane requirement increase arising from the use of lead free fuel

Ahmad, Jamil (1989). Octane requirement increase arising from the use of lead free fuel. PHD thesis, Aston University.

Abstract

Lead in petrol has been identified as a health hazard and attempts are being made to create a lead-free atmosphere. Through an intensive study a review is made of the various options available to the automobile and petroleum industry. The economic and atmospheric penalties coupled with automobile fuel consumption trends are calculated and presented in both graphical and tabulated form. Experimental measurements of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions are also presented for certain selected fuels. Reduction in CO and HC's with the employment of a three-way catalyst is also discussed. All tests were carried out on a Fiat 127A engine at wide open throttle and standard timing setting. A Froude dynamometer was used to vary engine speed. With the introduction of lead-free petrol, interest in combustion chamber deposits in spark ignition engines has ben renewed. These deposits cause octane requirement increase or rise in engine knock and decreased volumetric efficiency. The detrimental effect of the deposits has been attributed to the physical volume of the deposit and to changes in heat transfer. This study attempts to assess why leaded deposits, though often greater in mass and volume, yield relatively lower ORI when compared to lead-free deposits under identical operating conditions. This has been carried out by identifying the differences in the physical nature of the deposit and then through measurement of the thermal conductivity and permeability of the deposits. The measured thermal conductivity results are later used in a mathematical model to determine heat transfer rates and temperature variation across the engine wall and deposit. For the model, the walls of the combustion cylinder and top are assumed to be free of engine deposit, the major deposit being on the piston head. Seven different heat transfer equations are formulated describing heat flow at each part of the four stroke cycle, and the variation of cylinder wall area exposed to gas mixture is accounted for. The heat transfer equations are solved using numerical methods and temperature variations across the wall identified. Though the calculations have been carried out for one particular moment in the cycle, similar calculations are possible for every degree of the crank angle, and thus further information regarding location of maximum temperatures at every degree of the crank angle may also be determined. In conclusion, thermal conductivity values of leaded and lead-free deposits have been found. The fundamental concepts of a mathematical model with great potential have been formulated and it is hoped that with future work it may be used in a simulation for different engine construction materials and motor fuels, leading to better design of future prototype engines.

Divisions: Engineering & Applied Sciences > Chemical engineering & applied chemistry
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Institution: Aston University
Uncontrolled Keywords: ORI,exhaust emissions,unleaded deposit
Completed Date: 1989-05

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