Canagliflozin attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation process in APOE knockout mice

Nasiri-ansari, Νarjes, Dimitriadis, Georgios K., Agrogiannis, Georgios, Perrea, Despoina, Kostakis, Ioannis D., Kaltsas, Gregory, Papavassiliou, Athanasios G., Randeva, Harpal S. and Kassi, Eva (2018). Canagliflozin attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation process in APOE knockout mice. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 17 ,

Abstract

Background: Sodium glucose co-transporter2 inhibitors reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus based on the results of recent cardiovascular outcome studies. Herein, we investigated the efects of long-term treatment with canaglifozin on biochemical and immunohistochemical markers related to atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis development in the aorta of apolipoprotein E knockout (Apo-E(−/−) ) mice. Methods: At the age of 5 weeks, mice were switched from normal to a high-fat diet. After 5 weeks, Apo-E(−/−) mice were divided into control-group (6 mice) treated with 0.5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and Cana-group (7 mice) treated with canaglifozin (10 mg/kg per day) per os. After 5 weeks of intervention, animals were sacrifced, and heart and aorta were removed. Sections stained with hematoxylin–eosin (H&E) were used for histomorphometry whereas Masson’s stained tissues were used to quantify the collagen content. Immunohistochemistry to assess MCP-1, CD68, a-smooth muscle actin, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression was carried out and q-PCR experiments were performed to quantify mRNA expression. Results: Canaglifozin-group mice had lower total-cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels (P<0.01), while heart rate was signifcantly lower (P<0.05). Histomorphometry revealed that one in seven Cana-group mice versus four in six control mice developed atheromatosis, while aortic root plaque was signifcantly less, and collagen was 1.6 times more intense in canaglifozin-group suggesting increased plaque stability. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MCP-1 was signifcantly less expressed (P<0.05) in the aortic root of canaglifozin-group while reduced expression of a-actin and CD68 was not reaching signifcance (P=0.15). VCAM-1 and MCP-1 mRNA levels were lower (P=0.02 and P=0.07, respectively), while TIMP-1/MMP-2 ratio expression was higher in canaglifozin-group approaching statistical signifcance (P=0.07). Conclusions: Canaglifozin attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis, reducing (1) hyperlipidemia and hyper‑ glycemia, and (2) infammatory process, by lowering the expression of infammatory molecules such as MCP-1 and VCAM-1. Moreover, canaglifozin was found to increase the atherosclerotic plaque stability via increasing TIMP-1/ MMP-2 ratio expression.

Publication DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12933-018-0749-1
Divisions: Life & Health Sciences
Additional Information: © The Author(s) 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/ publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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Related URLs: https://cardiab ... 2933-018-0749-1 (Publisher URL)
Published Date: 2018-07-26
Authors: Nasiri-ansari, Νarjes
Dimitriadis, Georgios K.
Agrogiannis, Georgios
Perrea, Despoina
Kostakis, Ioannis D.
Kaltsas, Gregory
Papavassiliou, Athanasios G.
Randeva, Harpal S.
Kassi, Eva

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