Consistent reduction of postprandial glucagon and insulin by lixisenatide in the GetGoal clinical trial programme

Bailey, C.J.; Berria, R.; Stager, W.; Gautier, J.-F.; Aronson, R. and Ahrén, B. Consistent reduction of postprandial glucagon and insulin by lixisenatide in the GetGoal clinical trial programme. Diabetologia, 56 (Suppl.), S403.

Abstract

Background and aims: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists improve islet function and delay gastric emptying in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We evaluated 2-hour glucose, glucagon and insulin changes following a standardized mixed-meal tolerance test before and after 24 weeks of treatment with the once-daily prandial GLP-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide (approved for a therapeutic dose of 20 μg once daily) in six randomized, placebo-controlled studies within the lixisenatide Phase III GetGoal programme. In the studies, the mixed-meal test was conducted before and after: (1) lixisenatide treatment in patients insufficiently controlled despite diet and exercise (GetGoal-Mono), (2) lixisenatide treatment in combination with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) (GetGoal-M and GetGoal-S), or (3) lixisenatide treatment in combination with basal insulin ± OAD (GetGoal-Duo 1, GetGoal-L and GetGoal-L-Asia).Materials and methods: A meta-analysis was performed (lixisenatide n=1124 vs placebo n=707) combining ANCOVA least squares (LS) mean values using an inverse variance weighted analysis. Results: Lixisenatide significantly reduced 2-hour postprandial glucose from baseline (LS mean difference vs placebo: -4.9 mmol/L, p<0.0001, Figure) and glucose excursions (LS mean difference vs placebo: -4.5 mmol/L, p<0.0001). As measured in two studies, lixisenatide also reduced postprandial glucagon (LS mean difference vs placebo: -19.0 ng/L, p<0.0001) and insulin (LS mean difference vs placebo: -64.8 pmol/L, p<0.0001), although the glucagon/insulin ratio was increased (LS mean difference vs placebo: 0.15, p=0.02) compared with placebo. Conclusion: The results show that lixisenatide potently reduces the glucose excursion after meal ingestion in subjects with type 2 diabetes, in association with marked reductions in glucagon and insulin levels. It is suggested that diminished glucagon secretion and slower gastric emptying contribute to reduced hepatic glucose production and delayed glucose absorption, enabling postprandial glycaemia to be controlled with less demand on beta-cell insulin secretion. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT00688701; NCT00712673; NCT00713830; NCT00975286; NCT00715624; NCT00866658 Supported by: Sanofi

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